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How to write a speech that your audience remembers


Whether in a work meeting or at an investor panel, you might give a speech at some point. And no matter how excited you are about the opportunity, the experience can be nerve-wracking . 

But feeling butterflies doesn’t mean you can’t give a great speech. With the proper preparation and a clear outline, apprehensive public speakers and natural wordsmiths alike can write and present a compelling message. Here’s how to write a good speech you’ll be proud to deliver.

What is good speech writing?

Good speech writing is the art of crafting words and ideas into a compelling, coherent, and memorable message that resonates with the audience. Here are some key elements of great speech writing:

  • It begins with clearly understanding the speech's purpose and the audience it seeks to engage. 
  • A well-written speech clearly conveys its central message, ensuring that the audience understands and retains the key points. 
  • It is structured thoughtfully, with a captivating opening, a well-organized body, and a conclusion that reinforces the main message. 
  • Good speech writing embraces the power of engaging content, weaving in stories, examples, and relatable anecdotes to connect with the audience on both intellectual and emotional levels. 

Ultimately, it is the combination of these elements, along with the authenticity and delivery of the speaker , that transforms words on a page into a powerful and impactful spoken narrative.

What makes a good speech?

A great speech includes several key qualities, but three fundamental elements make a speech truly effective:

Clarity and purpose

Remembering the audience, cohesive structure.

While other important factors make a speech a home run, these three elements are essential for writing an effective speech.

The main elements of a good speech

The main elements of a speech typically include:

  • Introduction: The introduction sets the stage for your speech and grabs the audience's attention. It should include a hook or attention-grabbing opening, introduce the topic, and provide an overview of what will be covered.
  • Opening/captivating statement: This is a strong statement that immediately engages the audience and creates curiosity about the speech topics.
  • Thesis statement/central idea: The thesis statement or central idea is a concise statement that summarizes the main point or argument of your speech. It serves as a roadmap for the audience to understand what your speech is about.
  • Body: The body of the speech is where you elaborate on your main points or arguments. Each point is typically supported by evidence, examples, statistics, or anecdotes. The body should be organized logically and coherently, with smooth transitions between the main points.
  • Supporting evidence: This includes facts, data, research findings, expert opinions, or personal stories that support and strengthen your main points. Well-chosen and credible evidence enhances the persuasive power of your speech.
  • Transitions: Transitions are phrases or statements that connect different parts of your speech, guiding the audience from one idea to the next. Effective transitions signal the shifts in topics or ideas and help maintain a smooth flow throughout the speech.
  • Counterarguments and rebuttals (if applicable): If your speech involves addressing opposing viewpoints or counterarguments, you should acknowledge and address them. Presenting counterarguments makes your speech more persuasive and demonstrates critical thinking.
  • Conclusion: The conclusion is the final part of your speech and should bring your message to a satisfying close. Summarize your main points, restate your thesis statement, and leave the audience with a memorable closing thought or call to action.
  • Closing statement: This is the final statement that leaves a lasting impression and reinforces the main message of your speech. It can be a call to action, a thought-provoking question, a powerful quote, or a memorable anecdote.
  • Delivery and presentation: How you deliver your speech is also an essential element to consider. Pay attention to your tone, body language, eye contact , voice modulation, and timing. Practice and rehearse your speech, and try using the 7-38-55 rule to ensure confident and effective delivery.

While the order and emphasis of these elements may vary depending on the type of speech and audience, these elements provide a framework for organizing and delivering a successful speech.


How to structure a good speech

You know what message you want to transmit, who you’re delivering it to, and even how you want to say it. But you need to know how to start, develop, and close a speech before writing it. 

Think of a speech like an essay. It should have an introduction, conclusion, and body sections in between. This places ideas in a logical order that the audience can better understand and follow them. Learning how to make a speech with an outline gives your storytelling the scaffolding it needs to get its point across.

Here’s a general speech structure to guide your writing process:

  • Explanation 1
  • Explanation 2
  • Explanation 3

How to write a compelling speech opener

Some research shows that engaged audiences pay attention for only 15 to 20 minutes at a time. Other estimates are even lower, citing that people stop listening intently in fewer than 10 minutes . If you make a good first impression at the beginning of your speech, you have a better chance of interesting your audience through the middle when attention spans fade. 

Implementing the INTRO model can help grab and keep your audience’s attention as soon as you start speaking. This acronym stands for interest, need, timing, roadmap, and objectives, and it represents the key points you should hit in an opening. 

Here’s what to include for each of these points: 

  • Interest : Introduce yourself or your topic concisely and speak with confidence . Write a compelling opening statement using relevant data or an anecdote that the audience can relate to.
  • Needs : The audience is listening to you because they have something to learn. If you’re pitching a new app idea to a panel of investors, those potential partners want to discover more about your product and what they can earn from it. Read the room and gently remind them of the purpose of your speech. 
  • Timing : When appropriate, let your audience know how long you’ll speak. This lets listeners set expectations and keep tabs on their own attention span. If a weary audience member knows you’ll talk for 40 minutes, they can better manage their energy as that time goes on. 
  • Routemap : Give a brief overview of the three main points you’ll cover in your speech. If an audience member’s attention starts to drop off and they miss a few sentences, they can more easily get their bearings if they know the general outline of the presentation.
  • Objectives : Tell the audience what you hope to achieve, encouraging them to listen to the end for the payout. 

Writing the middle of a speech

The body of your speech is the most information-dense section. Facts, visual aids, PowerPoints — all this information meets an audience with a waning attention span. Sticking to the speech structure gives your message focus and keeps you from going off track, making everything you say as useful as possible.

Limit the middle of your speech to three points, and support them with no more than three explanations. Following this model organizes your thoughts and prevents you from offering more information than the audience can retain. 

Using this section of the speech to make your presentation interactive can add interest and engage your audience. Try including a video or demonstration to break the monotony. A quick poll or survey also keeps the audience on their toes. 

Wrapping the speech up

To you, restating your points at the end can feel repetitive and dull. You’ve practiced countless times and heard it all before. But repetition aids memory and learning , helping your audience retain what you’ve told them. Use your speech’s conclusion to summarize the main points with a few short sentences.

Try to end on a memorable note, like posing a motivational quote or a thoughtful question the audience can contemplate once they leave. In proposal or pitch-style speeches, consider landing on a call to action (CTA) that invites your audience to take the next step.


How to write a good speech

If public speaking gives you the jitters, you’re not alone. Roughly 80% of the population feels nervous before giving a speech, and another 10% percent experiences intense anxiety and sometimes even panic. 

The fear of failure can cause procrastination and can cause you to put off your speechwriting process until the last minute. Finding the right words takes time and preparation, and if you’re already feeling nervous, starting from a blank page might seem even harder.

But putting in the effort despite your stress is worth it. Presenting a speech you worked hard on fosters authenticity and connects you to the subject matter, which can help your audience understand your points better. Human connection is all about honesty and vulnerability, and if you want to connect to the people you’re speaking to, they should see that in you.

1. Identify your objectives and target audience

Before diving into the writing process, find healthy coping strategies to help you stop worrying . Then you can define your speech’s purpose, think about your target audience, and start identifying your objectives. Here are some questions to ask yourself and ground your thinking : 

  • What purpose do I want my speech to achieve? 
  • What would it mean to me if I achieved the speech’s purpose?
  • What audience am I writing for? 
  • What do I know about my audience? 
  • What values do I want to transmit? 
  • If the audience remembers one take-home message, what should it be? 
  • What do I want my audience to feel, think, or do after I finish speaking? 
  • What parts of my message could be confusing and require further explanation?

2. Know your audience

Understanding your audience is crucial for tailoring your speech effectively. Consider the demographics of your audience, their interests, and their expectations. For instance, if you're addressing a group of healthcare professionals, you'll want to use medical terminology and data that resonate with them. Conversely, if your audience is a group of young students, you'd adjust your content to be more relatable to their experiences and interests. 

3. Choose a clear message

Your message should be the central idea that you want your audience to take away from your speech. Let's say you're giving a speech on climate change. Your clear message might be something like, "Individual actions can make a significant impact on mitigating climate change." Throughout your speech, all your points and examples should support this central message, reinforcing it for your audience.

4. Structure your speech

Organizing your speech properly keeps your audience engaged and helps them follow your ideas. The introduction should grab your audience's attention and introduce the topic. For example, if you're discussing space exploration, you could start with a fascinating fact about a recent space mission. In the body, you'd present your main points logically, such as the history of space exploration, its scientific significance, and future prospects. Finally, in the conclusion, you'd summarize your key points and reiterate the importance of space exploration in advancing human knowledge.

5. Use engaging content for clarity

Engaging content includes stories, anecdotes, statistics, and examples that illustrate your main points. For instance, if you're giving a speech about the importance of reading, you might share a personal story about how a particular book changed your perspective. You could also include statistics on the benefits of reading, such as improved cognitive abilities and empathy.

6. Maintain clarity and simplicity

It's essential to communicate your ideas clearly. Avoid using overly technical jargon or complex language that might confuse your audience. For example, if you're discussing a medical breakthrough with a non-medical audience, explain complex terms in simple, understandable language.

7. Practice and rehearse

Practice is key to delivering a great speech. Rehearse multiple times to refine your delivery, timing, and tone. Consider using a mirror or recording yourself to observe your body language and gestures. For instance, if you're giving a motivational speech, practice your gestures and expressions to convey enthusiasm and confidence.

8. Consider nonverbal communication

Your body language, tone of voice, and gestures should align with your message . If you're delivering a speech on leadership, maintain strong eye contact to convey authority and connection with your audience. A steady pace and varied tone can also enhance your speech's impact.

9. Engage your audience

Engaging your audience keeps them interested and attentive. Encourage interaction by asking thought-provoking questions or sharing relatable anecdotes. If you're giving a speech on teamwork, ask the audience to recall a time when teamwork led to a successful outcome, fostering engagement and connection.

10. Prepare for Q&A

Anticipate potential questions or objections your audience might have and prepare concise, well-informed responses. If you're delivering a speech on a controversial topic, such as healthcare reform, be ready to address common concerns, like the impact on healthcare costs or access to services, during the Q&A session.

By following these steps and incorporating examples that align with your specific speech topic and purpose, you can craft and deliver a compelling and impactful speech that resonates with your audience.


Tools for writing a great speech

There are several helpful tools available for speechwriting, both technological and communication-related. Here are a few examples:

  • Word processing software: Tools like Microsoft Word, Google Docs, or other word processors provide a user-friendly environment for writing and editing speeches. They offer features like spell-checking, grammar correction, formatting options, and easy revision tracking.
  • Presentation software: Software such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Google Slides is useful when creating visual aids to accompany your speech. These tools allow you to create engaging slideshows with text, images, charts, and videos to enhance your presentation.
  • Speechwriting Templates: Online platforms or software offer pre-designed templates specifically for speechwriting. These templates provide guidance on structuring your speech and may include prompts for different sections like introductions, main points, and conclusions.
  • Rhetorical devices and figures of speech: Rhetorical tools such as metaphors, similes, alliteration, and parallelism can add impact and persuasion to your speech. Resources like books, websites, or academic papers detailing various rhetorical devices can help you incorporate them effectively.
  • Speechwriting apps: Mobile apps designed specifically for speechwriting can be helpful in organizing your thoughts, creating outlines, and composing a speech. These apps often provide features like voice recording, note-taking, and virtual prompts to keep you on track.
  • Grammar and style checkers: Online tools or plugins like Grammarly or Hemingway Editor help improve the clarity and readability of your speech by checking for grammar, spelling, and style errors. They provide suggestions for sentence structure, word choice, and overall tone.
  • Thesaurus and dictionary: Online or offline resources such as thesauruses and dictionaries help expand your vocabulary and find alternative words or phrases to express your ideas more effectively. They can also clarify meanings or provide context for unfamiliar terms.
  • Online speechwriting communities: Joining online forums or communities focused on speechwriting can be beneficial for getting feedback, sharing ideas, and learning from experienced speechwriters. It's an opportunity to connect with like-minded individuals and improve your public speaking skills through collaboration.

Remember, while these tools can assist in the speechwriting process, it's essential to use them thoughtfully and adapt them to your specific needs and style. The most important aspect of speechwriting remains the creativity, authenticity, and connection with your audience that you bring to your speech.


5 tips for writing a speech

Behind every great speech is an excellent idea and a speaker who refined it. But a successful speech is about more than the initial words on the page, and there are a few more things you can do to help it land.

Here are five more tips for writing and practicing your speech:

1. Structure first, write second

If you start the writing process before organizing your thoughts, you may have to re-order, cut, and scrap the sentences you worked hard on. Save yourself some time by using a speech structure, like the one above, to order your talking points first. This can also help you identify unclear points or moments that disrupt your flow.

2. Do your homework

Data strengthens your argument with a scientific edge. Research your topic with an eye for attention-grabbing statistics, or look for findings you can use to support each point. If you’re pitching a product or service, pull information from company metrics that demonstrate past or potential successes. 

Audience members will likely have questions, so learn all talking points inside and out. If you tell investors that your product will provide 12% returns, for example, come prepared with projections that support that statement.

3. Sound like yourself

Memorable speakers have distinct voices. Think of Martin Luther King Jr’s urgent, inspiring timbre or Oprah’s empathetic, personal tone . Establish your voice — one that aligns with your personality and values — and stick with it. If you’re a motivational speaker, keep your tone upbeat to inspire your audience . If you’re the CEO of a startup, try sounding assured but approachable. 

4. Practice

As you practice a speech, you become more confident , gain a better handle on the material, and learn the outline so well that unexpected questions are less likely to trip you up. Practice in front of a colleague or friend for honest feedback about what you could change, and speak in front of the mirror to tweak your nonverbal communication and body language .

5. Remember to breathe

When you’re stressed, you breathe more rapidly . It can be challenging to talk normally when you can’t regulate your breath. Before your presentation, try some mindful breathing exercises so that when the day comes, you already have strategies that will calm you down and remain present . This can also help you control your voice and avoid speaking too quickly.

How to ghostwrite a great speech for someone else

Ghostwriting a speech requires a unique set of skills, as you're essentially writing a piece that will be delivered by someone else. Here are some tips on how to effectively ghostwrite a speech:

  • Understand the speaker's voice and style : Begin by thoroughly understanding the speaker's personality, speaking style, and preferences. This includes their tone, humor, and any personal anecdotes they may want to include.
  • Interview the speaker : Have a detailed conversation with the speaker to gather information about their speech's purpose, target audience, key messages, and any specific points they want to emphasize. Ask for personal stories or examples they may want to include.
  • Research thoroughly : Research the topic to ensure you have a strong foundation of knowledge. This helps you craft a well-informed and credible speech.
  • Create an outline : Develop a clear outline that includes the introduction, main points, supporting evidence, and a conclusion. Share this outline with the speaker for their input and approval.
  • Write in the speaker's voice : While crafting the speech, maintain the speaker's voice and style. Use language and phrasing that feel natural to them. If they have a particular way of expressing ideas, incorporate that into the speech.
  • Craft a captivating opening : Begin the speech with a compelling opening that grabs the audience's attention. This could be a relevant quote, an interesting fact, a personal anecdote, or a thought-provoking question.
  • Organize content logically : Ensure the speech flows logically, with each point building on the previous one. Use transitions to guide the audience from one idea to the next smoothly.
  • Incorporate engaging stories and examples : Include anecdotes, stories, and real-life examples that illustrate key points and make the speech relatable and memorable.
  • Edit and revise : Edit the speech carefully for clarity, grammar, and coherence. Ensure the speech is the right length and aligns with the speaker's time constraints.
  • Seek feedback : Share drafts of the speech with the speaker for their feedback and revisions. They may have specific changes or additions they'd like to make.
  • Practice delivery : If possible, work with the speaker on their delivery. Practice the speech together, allowing the speaker to become familiar with the content and your writing style.
  • Maintain confidentiality : As a ghostwriter, it's essential to respect the confidentiality and anonymity of the work. Do not disclose that you wrote the speech unless you have the speaker's permission to do so.
  • Be flexible : Be open to making changes and revisions as per the speaker's preferences. Your goal is to make them look good and effectively convey their message.
  • Meet deadlines : Stick to agreed-upon deadlines for drafts and revisions. Punctuality and reliability are essential in ghostwriting.
  • Provide support : Support the speaker during their preparation and rehearsal process. This can include helping with cue cards, speech notes, or any other materials they need.

Remember that successful ghostwriting is about capturing the essence of the speaker while delivering a well-structured and engaging speech. Collaboration, communication, and adaptability are key to achieving this.

Give your best speech yet

Learn how to make a speech that’ll hold an audience’s attention by structuring your thoughts and practicing frequently. Put the effort into writing and preparing your content, and aim to improve your breathing, eye contact , and body language as you practice. The more you work on your speech, the more confident you’ll become.

The energy you invest in writing an effective speech will help your audience remember and connect to every concept. Remember: some life-changing philosophies have come from good speeches, so give your words a chance to resonate with others. You might even change their thinking.

Boost your speech skills

Enhance your public speaking with personalized coaching tailored to your needs

Elizabeth Perry, ACC

Elizabeth Perry is a Coach Community Manager at BetterUp. She uses strategic engagement strategies to cultivate a learning community across a global network of Coaches through in-person and virtual experiences, technology-enabled platforms, and strategic coaching industry partnerships. With over 3 years of coaching experience and a certification in transformative leadership and life coaching from Sofia University, Elizabeth leverages transpersonal psychology expertise to help coaches and clients gain awareness of their behavioral and thought patterns, discover their purpose and passions, and elevate their potential. She is a lifelong student of psychology, personal growth, and human potential as well as an ICF-certified ACC transpersonal life and leadership Coach.

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How to write a good speech in 7 steps

By:  Susan Dugdale  

- an easily followed format for writing a great speech

Did you know writing a speech doesn't have be an anxious, nail biting experience?

Unsure? Don't be.

You may have lived with the idea you were never good with words for a long time. Or perhaps giving speeches at school brought you out in cold sweats.

However learning how to write a speech is relatively straight forward when you learn to write out loud.

And that's the journey I am offering to take you on: step by step.

To learn quickly, go slow

Take all the time you need. This speech format has 7 steps, each building on the next.

Walk, rather than run, your way through all of them. Don't be tempted to rush. Familiarize yourself with the ideas. Try them out.

I know there are well-advertised short cuts and promises of 'write a speech in 5 minutes'. However in reality they only truly work for somebody who already has the basic foundations of speech writing in place.

The foundation of good speech writing 

These steps are the backbone of sound speech preparation. Learn and follow them well at the outset and yes, given more experience and practice you could probably flick something together quickly. Like any skill, the more it's used, the easier it gets.

In the meantime...

Step 1: Begin with a speech overview or outline

Are you in a hurry? Without time to read a whole page? Grab ... The Quick How to Write a Speech Checklist And come back to get the details later.

  • WHO you are writing your speech for (your target audience)
  • WHY you are preparing this speech. What's the main purpose of your speech? Is it to inform or tell your audience about something? To teach them a new skill or demonstrate something? To persuade or to entertain? (See 4 types of speeches: informative, demonstrative, persuasive and special occasion or entertaining for more.) What do you want them to think, feel or do as a result of listening the speech?
  • WHAT your speech is going to be about (its topic) - You'll want to have thought through your main points and have ranked them in order of importance. And have sorted the supporting research you need to make those points effectively.
  • HOW much time you have for your speech eg. 3 minutes, 5 minutes... The amount of time you've been allocated dictates how much content you need. If you're unsure check this page: how many words per minute in a speech: a quick reference guide . You'll find estimates of the number of words required for 1 - 10 minute speeches by slow, medium and fast talkers.

Use an outline

The best way to make sure you deliver a perfect speech is to start by carefully completing a speech outline covering the essentials: WHO, WHY, WHAT and HOW.

Beginning to write without thinking your speech through is a bit like heading off on a journey not knowing why you're traveling or where you're going to end up. You can find yourself lost in a deep, dark, murky muddle of ideas very quickly!

Pulling together a speech overview or outline is a much safer option. It's the map you'll follow to get where you want to go.

Get a blank speech outline template to complete

Click the link to find out a whole lot more about preparing a speech outline . ☺ You'll also find a free printable blank speech outline template.  I recommend using it!

Understanding speech construction

Before you begin to write, using your completed outline as a guide, let's briefly look at what you're aiming to prepare.

  • an opening or introduction
  • the body where the bulk of the information is given
  • and an ending (or summary).

Imagine your speech as a sandwich

Image: gourmet sandwich with labels on the top (opening) and bottom (conclusion) slices of bread and filling, (body). Text: Key ingredients for a superb speech sandwich.

If you think of a speech as a sandwich you'll get the idea.

The opening and ending are the slices of bread holding the filling (the major points or the body of your speech) together.

You can build yourself a simple sandwich with one filling (one big idea) or you could go gourmet and add up to three or, even five. The choice is yours.

But whatever you choose to serve, as a good cook, you need to consider who is going to eat it! And that's your audience.

So let's find out who they are before we do anything else. 

Step 2: Know who you are talking to

Understanding your audience.

Did you know a  good speech is never written from the speaker's point of view?  ( If you need to know more about why check out this page on  building rapport .)

Begin with the most important idea/point on your outline.

Consider HOW you can explain (show, tell) that to your audience in the most effective way for them to easily understand it.   

Writing from the audience's point of view

how can i write a speech

To help you write from an audience point of view, it's a good idea to identify either a real person or the type of person who is most likely to be listening to you.

Make sure you select someone who represents the "majority" of the people who will be in your audience. That is they are neither struggling to comprehend you at the bottom of your scale or light-years ahead at the top.

Now imagine they are sitting next to you eagerly waiting to hear what you're going to say. Give them a name, for example, Joe, to help make them real.

Ask yourself

  • How do I need to tailor my information to meet Joe's needs? For example, do you tell personal stories to illustrate your main points? Absolutely! Yes. This is a very powerful technique. (Click storytelling in speeches to find out more.)
  • What type or level of language is right for Joe as well as my topic? For example if I use jargon (activity, industry or profession specific vocabulary) will it be understood?

Step 3: Writing as you speak

Writing oral language.

Write down what you want to say about your first main point as if you were talking directly to Joe.

If it helps, say it all out loud before you write it down and/or record it.

Use the information below as a guide

Infographic: The Characteristics of Spoken Language - 7 points of difference with examples.

(Click to download The Characteristics of Spoken Language  as a pdf.) 

You do not have to write absolutely everything you're going to say down * but you do need to write down, or outline, the sequence of ideas to ensure they are logical and easily followed.

Remember too, to explain or illustrate your point with examples from your research. 

( * Tip: If this is your first speech the safety net of having everything written down could be just what you need. It's easier to recover from a patch of jitters when you have a word by word manuscript than if you have either none, or a bare outline. Your call!)

Step 4: Checking tone and language

The focus of this step is re-working what you've done in Step 2 and 3.

You identified who you were talking to (Step 2) and in Step 3, wrote up your first main point.  Is it right? Have you made yourself clear?  Check it.

Graphic:cartoon drawing of a woman sitting in front of a laptop. Text:How to write a speech: checking tone and language.

How well you complete this step depends on how well you understand the needs of the people who are going to listen to your speech.

Please do not assume because you know what you're talking about the person (Joe) you've chosen to represent your audience will too. Joe is not a mind-reader!

How to check what you've prepared

  • Check the "tone" of your language . Is it right for the occasion, subject matter and your audience?
  • Check the length of your sentences. You need short sentences. If they're too long or complicated you risk losing your listeners.

Check for jargon too. These are industry, activity or group exclusive words.

For instance take the phrase: authentic learning . This comes from teaching and refers to connecting lessons to the daily life of students. Authentic learning is learning that is relevant and meaningful for students. If you're not a teacher you may not understand the phrase.

The use of any vocabulary requiring insider knowledge needs to be thought through from the audience perspective. Jargon can close people out.

  • Read what you've written out loud. If it flows naturally, in a logical manner, continue the process with your next main idea. If it doesn't, rework.

We use whole sentences and part ones, and we mix them up with asides or appeals e.g. "Did you get that? Of course you did. Right...Let's move it along. I was saying ..."

Click for more about the differences between spoken and written language .

And now repeat the process

Repeat this process for the remainder of your main ideas.

Because you've done the first one carefully, the rest should follow fairly easily.

Step 5: Use transitions

Providing links or transitions between main ideas.

Between each of your main ideas you need to provide a bridge or pathway for your audience. The clearer the pathway or bridge, the easier it is for them to make the transition from one idea to the next.

Graphic - girl walking across a bridge. Text - Using transitions to link ideas.

If your speech contains more than three main ideas and each is building on the last, then consider using a "catch-up" or summary as part of your transitions.

Is your speech being evaluated? Find out exactly what aspects you're being assessed on using this standard speech evaluation form

Link/transition examples

A link can be as simple as:

"We've explored one scenario for the ending of Block Buster 111, but let's consider another. This time..."

What follows this transition is the introduction of Main Idea Two.

Here's a summarizing link/transition example:

"We've ended Blockbuster 111 four ways so far. In the first, everybody died. In the second, everybody died BUT their ghosts remained to haunt the area. In the third, one villain died. His partner reformed and after a fight-out with the hero, they both strode off into the sunset, friends forever. In the fourth, the hero dies in a major battle but is reborn sometime in the future.

And now what about one more? What if nobody died? The fifth possibility..."

Go back through your main ideas checking the links. Remember Joe as you go. Try each transition or link out loud and really listen to yourself. Is it obvious? Easily followed?

Keep them if they are clear and concise.

For more about transitions (with examples) see Andrew Dlugan's excellent article, Speech Transitions: Magical words and Phrases .

Step 6: The end of your speech

The ideal ending is highly memorable . You want it to live on in the minds of your listeners long after your speech is finished. Often it combines a call to action with a summary of major points.

Comic Graphic: End with a bang

Example speech endings

Example 1: The desired outcome of a speech persuading people to vote for you in an upcoming election is that they get out there on voting day and do so. You can help that outcome along by calling them to register their support by signing a prepared pledge statement as they leave.

"We're agreed we want change. You can help us give it to you by signing this pledge statement as you leave. Be part of the change you want to see!

Example 2: The desired outcome is increased sales figures. The call to action is made urgent with the introduction of time specific incentives.

"You have three weeks from the time you leave this hall to make that dream family holiday in New Zealand yours. Can you do it? Will you do it? The kids will love it. Your wife will love it. Do it now!"

How to figure out the right call to action

A clue for working out what the most appropriate call to action might be, is to go back to your original purpose for giving the speech.

  • Was it to motivate or inspire?
  • Was it to persuade to a particular point of view?
  • Was it to share specialist information?
  • Was it to celebrate a person, a place, time or event?

Ask yourself what you want people to do as a result of having listened to your speech.

For more about ending speeches

Visit this page for more about how to end a speech effectively . You'll find two additional types of speech endings with examples.

Write and test

Write your ending and test it out loud. Try it out on a friend, or two. Is it good? Does it work?

Step 7: The introduction

Once you've got the filling (main ideas) the linking and the ending in place, it's time to focus on the introduction.

The introduction comes last as it's the most important part of your speech. This is the bit that either has people sitting up alert or slumped and waiting for you to end. It's the tone setter!

What makes a great speech opening?

Ideally you want an opening that makes listening to you the only thing the 'Joes' in the audience want to do.

You want them to forget they're hungry or that their chair is hard or that their bills need paying.

The way to do that is to capture their interest straight away. You do this with a "hook".

Hooks to catch your audience's attention

Hooks come in as many forms as there are speeches and audiences. Your task is work out what specific hook is needed to catch your audience.

Graphic: shoal of fish and two hooked fishing lines. Text: Hooking and holding attention

Go back to the purpose. Why are you giving this speech?

Once you have your answer, consider your call to action. What do you want the audience to do, and, or take away, as a result of listening to you?

Next think about the imaginary or real person you wrote for when you were focusing on your main ideas.

Choosing the best hook

  • Is it humor?
  • Would shock tactics work?
  • Is it a rhetorical question?
  • Is it formality or informality?
  • Is it an outline or overview of what you're going to cover, including the call to action?
  • Or is it a mix of all these elements?

A hook example

Here's an example from a fictional political speech. The speaker is lobbying for votes. His audience are predominately workers whose future's are not secure.

"How's your imagination this morning? Good? (Pause for response from audience) Great, I'm glad. Because we're going to put it to work starting right now.

I want you to see your future. What does it look like? Are you happy? Is everything as you want it to be? No? Let's change that. We could do it. And we could do it today.

At the end of this speech you're going to be given the opportunity to change your world, for a better one ...

No, I'm not a magician. Or a simpleton with big ideas and precious little commonsense. I'm an ordinary man, just like you. And I have a plan to share!"

And then our speaker is off into his main points supported by examples. The end, which he has already foreshadowed in his opening, is the call to vote for him.

Prepare several hooks

Experiment with several openings until you've found the one that serves your audience, your subject matter and your purpose best.

For many more examples of speech openings go to: how to write a speech introduction . You'll find 12 of the very best ways to start a speech.

how can i write a speech

That completes the initial seven steps towards writing your speech. If you've followed them all the way through, congratulations, you now have the text of your speech!

Although you might have the words, you're still a couple of steps away from being ready to deliver them. Both of them are essential if you want the very best outcome possible. They are below. Please take them.

Step 8: Checking content and timing

This step pulls everything together.

Check once, check twice, check three times & then once more!

Go through your speech really carefully.

On the first read through check you've got your main points in their correct order with supporting material, plus an effective introduction and ending.

On the second read through check the linking passages or transitions making sure they are clear and easily followed.

On the third reading check your sentence structure, language use and tone.

Double, triple check the timing

Now go though once more.

This time read it aloud slowly and time yourself.

If it's too long for the time allowance you've been given make the necessary cuts.

Start by looking at your examples rather than the main ideas themselves. If you've used several examples to illustrate one principal idea, cut the least important out.

Also look to see if you've repeated yourself unnecessarily or, gone off track. If it's not relevant, cut it.

Repeat the process, condensing until your speech fits the required length, preferably coming in just under your time limit.

You can also find out how approximately long it will take you to say the words you have by using this very handy words to minutes converter . It's an excellent tool, one I frequently use. While it can't give you a precise time, it does provide a reasonable estimate.

Graphic: Click to read example speeches of all sorts.

Step 9: Rehearsing your speech

And NOW you are finished with writing the speech, and are ready for REHEARSAL .

how can i write a speech

Please don't be tempted to skip this step. It is not an extra thrown in for good measure. It's essential.

The "not-so-secret" secret of successful speeches combines good writing with practice, practice and then, practicing some more.

Go to how to practice public speaking and you'll find rehearsal techniques and suggestions to boost your speech delivery from ordinary to extraordinary.

The Quick How to Write a Speech Checklist

Before you begin writing you need:.

  • Your speech OUTLINE with your main ideas ranked in the order you're going to present them. (If you haven't done one complete this 4 step sample speech outline . It will make the writing process much easier.)
  • You also need to know WHO you're speaking to, the PURPOSE of the speech and HOW long you're speaking for

The basic format

  • the body where you present your main ideas

Split your time allowance so that you spend approximately 70% on the body and 15% each on the introduction and ending.

How to write the speech

  • Write your main ideas out incorporating your examples and research
  • Link them together making sure each flows in a smooth, logical progression
  • Write your ending, summarizing your main ideas briefly and end with a call for action
  • Write your introduction considering the 'hook' you're going to use to get your audience listening
  • An often quoted saying to explain the process is: Tell them what you're going to tell them (Introduction) Tell them (Body of your speech - the main ideas plus examples) Tell them what you told them (The ending)

TEST before presenting. Read aloud several times to check the flow of material, the suitability of language and the timing.

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How to Write a Speech

Last Updated: June 24, 2024 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Patrick Muñoz . Patrick is an internationally recognized Voice & Speech Coach, focusing on public speaking, vocal power, accent and dialects, accent reduction, voiceover, acting and speech therapy. He has worked with clients such as Penelope Cruz, Eva Longoria, and Roselyn Sanchez. He was voted LA's Favorite Voice and Dialect Coach by BACKSTAGE, is the voice and speech coach for Disney and Turner Classic Movies, and is a member of Voice and Speech Trainers Association. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 2,977,591 times.

Giving an original speech for a class, event, or work presentation can be nerve-wracking. However, writing an effective speech can help to bolster your confidence. With careful planning and an eye for detail, you can write a speech that will inform, persuade, motivate, or entertain! Give yourself plenty of time to craft your speech and practice it several times for best results.

Sample Speeches

how can i write a speech

Drafting an Effective Speech

Step 1 Research your topic well.

  • If you are writing a speech for a class, make sure to check with your teacher to get details about the number and acceptable types of sources.

Step 2 Make an outline...

  • If you are writing an informative or persuasive speech, then plan to arrange your speech with a problem and solution structure. Start the speech by talking about what is wrong, then explain how to fix the problem in the second half of your speech. [4] X Research source

Tip : Keep in mind that you can always refine your outline later or as you draft your speech. Include all of the information that seems relevant now with the expectation that you will likely need to pare it down later.

Step 3 Choose a hook to grab the audience’s attention right away.

  • For example, if you are writing a motivational speech about weight loss, then you might say something like, “Five years ago, I could not walk up a flight of stairs without needing to take a break halfway up.”
  • If you hope to persuade audience members to reduce their use of fossil fuels, then you might start off by saying, “Gas-powered vehicles are the reason why global warming is threatening to destroy our planet.”

Step 4 Connect your topic to a larger issue to give background information.

  • For example, if you are giving a speech on increasing funding for Alzheimer’s research, it would be helpful to provide information on how common Alzheimer’s disease is and how it affects families. You could accomplish this with a combination of a statistic and an anecdote.

Tip: Keep your introduction less than 1 paragraph or 1 double-spaced page long. This will help to ensure that you do not spend too much time on the context and background before getting to the meat of your topic. [7] X Research source

Step 5 Address each of your main points in a logical order.

  • For example, in a speech about ending animal testing for cosmetics, you might start with a point about how animal testing is cruel, then explain that it is unnecessary, and then talk about the alternatives to animal testing that make it obsolete.

Step 6 Introduce new topics and summarize material you have already covered.

  • For example, if you are about to cover the concept of delayed onset muscle soreness (also known as DOMS), then explain what it is in a nutshell first, then go into more detail about it and how it relates to your point, then end that section of your speech with a brief summary of the main point you are trying to make.

Step 7 Include transitions to guide your audience through your speech.

  • In that moment
  • The following week

Step 8 Conclude your speech with a call-to-action.

  • For example, if you have just described the effects of global warming on the polar bear population, conclude your speech by telling your audience about non-profit organizations that are working to protect the environment and the polar bear population.
  • If you have just shared your weight loss story to motivate your audience, tell them what they can do to start their own weight loss journey and share resources that you found helpful.

Making Your Speech More Engaging

Step 1 Keep your words and sentences short and simple.

  • For example, instead of saying, “Achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight is the pinnacle of human existence because it enables you to accomplish physical feats that boost your confidence and give you a sense of accomplishment,” say, “A healthy body weight allows you to do more physically, and this may make you happier overall.”
  • Keep in mind that it is also important to vary your sentence structure. You can include a longer sentence once or twice per page to add variety to your speech. Just avoid using lots of long sentences in your speech. [15] X Research source

Step 2 Favor nouns over pronouns for clarity.

  • For example, if you are giving a speech for a group of sales associates who are trying to increase sales of a new product called “Synergy,” then you might repeat a simple phrase to that effect, such as “Tell your customers about Synergy,” or you could simply say, “Synergy” a few times during your speech to remind your audience of this product.
  • If you are writing a motivational speech about how running can help people to overcome emotional hurdles, then you might repeat a phrase in your speech to emphasize this idea, such as, “Run through the pain.”

Step 4 Limit statistics and quotes to avoid overwhelming your audience.

  • For example, if you are giving a speech about moose mating patterns, 2 numbers that show the decline in the moose population over a 50 year period may be a striking addition to your speech. However, sharing a complex set of moose population statistics would be less compelling and possibly even confusing to your audience.
  • Choose quotes that are easy to follow and make sure that you explain how each quote you use supports to your argument. Try to stick with quotes that use simple language and take up no more than 2 lines on your page.

Step 5 Maintain an appropriate tone throughout your speech.

  • For example, when describing your love of food in a motivational speech about becoming a chef, you might decide to include a joke and say something like, “I always wanted to become a chef, ever since I was a little kid and I discovered that people actually make donuts and they don’t just randomly fall from the sky.”

Step 6 Provide visual aids if you are allowed.

  • Avoid relying on the slides to make the speech for you. You will still need to deliver your speech in an engaging manner. Only use the slides as a complement to your words.

Step 7 Practice and check for weak spots that you can improve.

  • Make sure to read your speech out loud when you review it! This will help you to determine if it sounds natural and if there are any awkward sections that you can cut, smooth out, or explain more clearly. [22] X Research source

Expert Q&A

Patrick Muñoz

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About This Article

Patrick Muñoz

To write a speech, start off with an attention-grabbing statement, like "Before I begin my speech, I have something important to say." Once you've gotten everyone's attention, move on to your strongest argument or point first since that's what audiences will remember the most. Use transitions throughout your speech, like "This brings us back to the bigger picture," so the audience doesn't get lost. To conclude your speech, restate the key points and leave your audience with a question or something to think about. To learn how to edit your first draft, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Write a Speech: 6 Tips for a Powerful Address

by Yen Cabag | 4 comments

how to write a speech header image

Abraham Lincoln achieved so much as a leader of the United States, but what remains eternal in the public’s imagination are his famous words from his Gettysburg Address. 

That’s just one example of the power of speech, and how it can be used as an effective tool for presenting ideas and influencing others.

Politicians use speeches to share their visions and goals; students practice delivering school lessons with them; businessmen give them to build up pep among their employees and associates; thought leaders use speeches in avenues like TedTalks and TedX to share their knowledge and insights. 

While there are many speech writing services available on the Internet, it only takes a bit of time for you to learn to write your own speech and develop this priceless life skill! 

What Makes a Great Speech?

So what makes a great speech?

Here are some of the common elements of great speeches from history: 

  • Clarity : Obviously, your speech is worthless if it can’t be clearly comprehended by your audience. The words should be easily understandable in order to be effective. 
  • Relevance : The message should match the season and needs of the audience, and the speaker should be confident in the need for that particular message. 
  • Brief, but complete : The best speeches don’t have to be long-winded; in fact, it takes more skill to include the same amount of information in a shorter length. 
  • Unbiased and unemotional : Although speeches may stir up the listeners’ emotions, the speaker needs to remain unbiased and not driven by emotion in order for the speech to have long-lasting effects. 
  • Audience involvement : Some of the best speeches include audience participation so that they can express their agreement with the content of the speech. 

How Do You Write a Good Speech? 

Before you can deliver a powerful message that stays with your listeners for a long time, you must write a well-structured speech that is clear, definite, brief, and complete.

Here are the steps you can follow if you’ve booked a speaking engagement or need to deliver an important presentation:

1. Decide on your main points.

A good rule of thumb is to have 3–5 main points; anything beyond that will be difficult for your listeners to remember. 

Try to give your audience at least one key line or idea that they will surely remember. Sometimes you can do this intentionally; other times, you may not know what specific line your audience will hang onto. 

One way to do this is to state your main points in memorable ways. The following are ways that you can do this: 

  • Use alliteration . For example, “Engage, Explore, Enjoy;” “Create, Connect, Collaborate, Commission.”  
  • Use contrast to highlight an important idea. For example, one line that everyone remembers about John F. Kennedy is from a speech he gave in 1961: “ Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country .” 
  • Make a short, memorable “quotable quote” for important points. Then, put ample emphasis around it by indicating space for you to pause or repeat the line. For example, in a conference on pioneering at Penang House of Prayer, one of the lines that the speaker Aaron Walsh shared was: “ Leadership is building the beautiful alternative .” 

2. Outline your speech.

A good outline will help make sure you hit the most important points you want to make and don’t go off on rabbit trails. Here are a few examples of a speech outline: 

Speech Outline Example 1: Basic Structure

Introduction : In the introduction, you can share a story relating to your topic, and then move on to give an overview of the main points you will be discussing. 

Body : This is where you go into detail for each of your main ideas. 

Conclusion : You wrap up your speech by summarizing the main points you have just finished elaborating. Then, you can close with a call-to-action or an answer to “What’s next?” 

Speech Outline Example 2: Problem-Solution Structure 

First Part: Describes the problem and why it is so bad

Second Part: Describes a possible solution or set of solutions 

Third Part: Summarizes how the solutions will solve the problem 

3. Write in the same tone as you speak. 

One of the most important public speaking tips is to remember that you are writing something that you will be speaking out loud for people to hear.

Chances are, your speaking tone is less formal and more conversational than when you write an essay. Take this into consideration when you write your speech. Some tips include: 

  • Keep your sentences short. Imagine reading out loud an insanely long sentence of more than 30 words. You will either run out of breath, or lose your audience in the process. 
  • Be confident with contractions. Formal writing tends to shy away from contractions: “I’m” needs to become “I am.” But because this is an verbally-delivered piece, contractions make you sound more relatable, and it takes less time to deliver. This leaves you more room for great content.
  • Remember that speaking isn’t tied to grammar as much as writing. When writing a speech, you don’t need to stick to strict grammar rules about writing in full sentences. People always say things like, “See?” “Gotcha,” and “Hope you like it.” 

4. Give concrete examples. 

Concrete examples, such as real stories and anecdotes, will resonate with your audience. Sharing personal stories not only makes your point more real to your audience, but it also makes you more relatable, and therefore trustworthy.

When you are thinking about which examples to include, consider using a mix of different types of stories: perhaps a funny anecdote or two, combined with a more thought-provoking personal tale can make a solid combination. 

5. Prepare a strong opening. 

The first few minutes of any speech are when the audience is most receptive. Make sure you grab their attention—and keep it!

How do you begin a speech? 

Some of the most powerful ways to begin a speech are: 

  • Quotes:. The quote you choose will help set the tone for the rest of your speech. 
  • Jokes: A joke or an anecdote is a great way to break the ice when speaking in public, especially if you don’t personally know your audience. 
  • “What If” question s: Challenging your audience to think from the get-go is a great way to grab their attention. 
  • “Imagine…” : Similar to asking a “what if” question, getting your audience to imagine a vision of a good future, for example, will stir up their emotions and keep them interested in what you have to share. 
  • Statistics : Official statistics are a great way to present a problem, giving you a good foundation for a solution you might offer. 

6. Practice out loud and cut unnecessary words.

After you write your speech, take time to practice reading it out loud.

You should do this for 2 main reasons:

  • You’ll want to check how long it takes you to deliver your speech, so you can plan accordingly.
  • You’ll want to practice using a natural, yet confident, speaking voice.

This is also the time to filter out unnecessary words. The best speechwriters believe that short and brief deliveries pack a better punch than long-winded speeches with many unnecessary rabbit trails. 

You might also wish to recite your speech in front of a few friends or colleagues, or record yourself using a webcam of software like Zoom, so you can review your presentation and find areas for improvement.

Examples of Famous Speeches

Below are several examples of famous speeches from history.

John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Speech

In his inaugural speech, President John F. Kennedy delivers one of his most famous lines—”Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”

MLK Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” Speech

Above is an excerpt from Martin Luther King, Jr.’s iconic “I Have a Dream” speech, delivered in August of 1963.

How to Write a Speech 

By following the 6 steps above, you’ll be well on your way to writing solid speeches that will stay with your listeners for years to come.

You can also study up on rhetorical skills that will make your speeches and your writing more effective, which will help you to connect with your audience on an even deeper level.

Did you find this post helpful? Let us know in the comments below!

If you enjoyed this post, then you might also like:

  • Public Speaking Tips: 10 Ways to Overcome Your Anxiety and Present with Confidence
  • Step-by-Step Guide to Booking Speaking Engagements
  • The Most Common Figures of Speech: Definitions, Examples, and How to Use Each
  • Tone: How to Give Your Writing Attitude (Plus 101 Words to Describe an Author’s Tone)

Yen Cabag

Yen Cabag is the Blog Writer of TCK Publishing. She is also a homeschooling mom, family coach, and speaker for the Charlotte Mason method, an educational philosophy that places great emphasis on classic literature and the masterpieces in art and music. She has also written several books, both fiction and nonfiction. Her passion is to see the next generation of children become lovers of reading and learning in the midst of short attention spans.

Nwafor Samuel Onyebuchi.

I find this explanation so helpful, enlightening and educative. Thanks so much for the good work beloved. I so much cheer your nice effor, in presenting this insightful piece to us. It’s quite worthy to me, dear.

Kaelyn Barron

We’re so glad you enjoyed the post! :)

Toby Ryan

Thank you for explaining how your speech should contain 5 main points or less in order to keep it memorable. Ever since my brother decided that he wanted to open a business that sells office supplies, he has been trying to write a speech to welcome the new employees that he plans on hiring next month. Maybe he should consider finding a professional that can help put his speech together.

Hi Toby, Yes that sounds like a good idea for your brother’s new employees! He could hire a professional, but even something really simple could probably be just as effective, especially if he follows these tips :)

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how can i write a speech


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How to Write a Speech to Engage your Audience

February 19, 2021 - Dom Barnard

In order to write a speech, you need to think about your audience, the required length, and the purpose or topic. This is true whether you are writing a wedding speech, conference presentation, investor pitch, or any other type of speech.

Being a great speech writer can help you get a promotion, motivate people, sell a business idea, persuade others and much more – it’s an essential skill in the modern world. In this article, we cover key tips for writing a speech.

Initial planning – Why? Who? What?

You should invest time strategically considering the speech. This will help you decide on the key message and content about your topic. Here are some points to consider.

  • What do I want to achieve?
  • When I achieve this, what will that do for me?
  • Why am I speaking?
  • What is the purpose of this speech?
  • Who are the audience and who do they represent?
  • Who do I represent?
  • What do I know about them? (culture, language, level of expertise)
  • How much influence do they have?
  • What is the main message and key points?
  • What specific action is implied?
  • What level of information should I include?
  • What is important to them?

Popular speech structure

You need to catch the audience attention early, very early (see section below). Deliver a memorable beginning, a clear middle and structured ending.

Popular speech structure:

  • Explanation 1
  • Explanation 2
  • Explanation 3

Secondary Point (Optional: supports main)

Tertiary Point (Optional: supports secondary and main)

Attention span of your audience

Research shows that attention span is greatest at the beginning of a speech, reduces considerably during the middle of your speech and picks up again towards the end when your audience know you about to finish.

Don’t try to put too many ideas into your speech. Research shows that people remember very little from speeches, so just give them one or two ideas to hang onto.

Attention span graph of audience in a conference or speech

These two articles explain audience attention span in more detail, and how to write a speech to extend it:

  • How many minutes is the audience’s attention span?
  • What to do when you’re losing your audience

Speech introduction

Make sure your opening few seconds are memorable as this is when your audience will make up their minds about you. Use a bold sentence to grab their attention, works best with numbers reinforcing your point.

An example sentence might be – “After this speech, I’m confident 50% of you will go out and buy a VR headset.” Follow these tips on how to write a speech intro:

Remember the INTRO model

This is more focused on presentations but sections can be applied broadly to other general speeches.

1. Interest

You: Introduce yourself confidently and clearly Audience: Why should I listen to you?

You: Remind the audience the reasons for this speech Audience: What’s in it for me?

You: State length of speech at beginning, “Over the next 15 minutes” Audience: How long until I can get a coffee?

4. Routemap

You: State the main points, “Today I’m going to cover 4 main points” Audience: Which sections of the speech are important to me?

5. Objectives

You: Clearly state the objective, “By the end of this speech, I would like to…” Audience: So that’s what you want from me today…

Example: Great speech opening

This speech opening is by Jamie Oliver, giving a TED talk on teaching every child about food.

Sadly, in the next 18 minutes when I do our chat, four Americans that are alive will be dead through the food that they eat. My name’s Jamie Oliver. I’m 34 years old. I’m from Essex in England and for the last seven years I’ve worked fairly tirelessly to save lives in my own way. I’m not a doctor; I’m a chef, I don’t have expensive equipment or medicine. I use information, education. I profoundly believe that the power of food has a primal place in our homes that binds us to the best bits of life. We have an awful, awful reality right now. America, you’re at the top of your game. This is one of the most unhealthy countries in the world.

Jamie Oliver TED talk

How not to open your speech

Avoid the following opening comments:

  • “ Apologies, I’m a little nervous about speaking ” – no need to make the audience aware of this, it will make them focus on how nervous you are instead of what you are saying
  • “ I’ve got the graveyard shift ” – you are telling people not to expect much
  • “ I’m what stands between you and lunch ” – even if people weren’t thinking it, after this comment, all they are thinking of is when will you finish so they can eat
  • “ We are running late, so I’ll do my best to explain… ” – instead of this, state how long your speech will take so that people know when they will be leaving

Middle of the speech

The body of your speech is where the majority of the information is. The audience has been introduced to the subject and reasons for the speech. Now you need to present your arguments and examples, data, illustrations backing up your key message.

How to write a speech body can be difficult, the best way to build this section is to write down three points you are trying to convey in your speech, your main, secondary and tertiary points. Then write down three descriptions clarifying each of these points. The descriptions should be simple, memorable and meaningful.

The middle of your speech is where the audience start losing attention. Keep this in mind and ensure your message is clear. Use images, jokes and rhetoric questions to keep the audience engaged.

Don’t overwhelm your audience with many points. It is much more valuable to make a small number of points well, than to have too many points which aren’t made satisfactorily.

Obama speech

Obama and his speeches

Obama’s speeches are well prepared with a focus on powerful words “A change is brought about because ordinary people do extraordinary things“. His speeches use simple language and quotes from famous speeches his listeners can relate to.

For additional trademark Obama techniques, check out  How Barack Obama prepares his speeches.

How to end a speech

Similar to the opening, your closing statements should be impactful, re-stating the key message of your speech. We advise learning your ending few lines word for word. The ending is an opportunity to:

  • Leave the audience with a lasting impression of your speech
  • Summarise the main points
  • Provide further ideas and discussion points for the audience to take away with them
  • Thank the audience for taking the time to listen

Methods to end your speech

Quotation Close  – use a famous quote to get the audience’s attention and create a link to your speech.

Bookend Close  – refer back to an opening statement and repeat it or add a few extra words to elaborate on it.

Open Question  – ask the audience a provocative question or a call to action to perform some task on the back of your speech.

For additional tips on how to write a speech, in particular how to close your speech, read:

  • 5 great ways to end a speech
  • 10 ways to end your speech with a bang
  • Presentations: language expert – signposting

Ideas for ending a speech

  • Key message
  • Refer to opening impact statement
  • Objectives met
  • Call to action
  • End on an Up

Step-by-step process for writing a speech

Here’s how to write your speech from concept to completion.

  • Outline your speech’s structure. What are the main ideas for each section?
  • Write out the main ideas in your outline. Don’t worry about making it perfect – just write as much of it down as you can
  • Edit and polish what you’ve written until you have a good first draft of your speech
  • Now you need to practice and  memorize your speech . The more you practice, the more you’ll figure out which sections need changing. You’ll also get an idea of length and if you need to extend / shorten it.
  • Update your speech, practice some more, and revise your speech until it has a great flow and you feel comfortable with it.

Classic speech transcripts

One of the best ways for learning how to write a speech is reading other well written ones. Here are a list of famous speeches to read and learn from:

  • Bill Gates TED Talk Transcript from 2015: Warns of Pandemics, Epidemics
  • Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg Commencement Speech at Harvard 2014
  • Ronald Reagan Memorial Day Speech Transcript 1984
  • I Have Been to the Mountaintop Speech Transcript – Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Features for Creative Writers
  • Features for Work
  • Features for Higher Education
  • Features for Teachers
  • Features for Non-Native Speakers
  • Learn Blog Grammar Guide Community Events FAQ
  • Grammar Guide

How to Write a Speech: Top Tips

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Ashleigh Ferguson

how to write a speech

Table of Contents

9 engaging speech writing tips, what are the different speech types , how to find help writing a speech.

A great speech is impactful and engaging. It should eloquently and clearly express your ideas.

Whatever the topic, a good speech should showcase your authority on a topic and demonstrate excellent communication and leadership skills.

Many people don't know how to write a speech, so the process seems daunting. But there are a few best practices and tips that can make the writing process easier.

In this article, we’ll discuss some best practices to help you write an effective speech that engages and captures your audience.

Public speaking can be nerve-racking. However, having a well-written speech can decrease some of that anxiety.

Even if you’ve never written a speech before, there are still best practices you can follow. 

An engaging speech should be clear, to the point, and follow a logical order. But how do you ensure your speech follows these criteria? Follow these nine engaging speech writing tips.

speech writing tips

Know Your Audience

Analyze your target audience to improve the effectiveness of your speech because different audiences will have different expectations. 

Consider your audience’s age, level of understanding, attitudes, and what they expect to take away from your speech, then tailor your message accordingly. 

For example, if your audience members are teenagers, it’s unlikely that references to the ’70s will be effective.

Start With a Clear Purpose

Decide on the main point of your speech, and make sure all your content supports that point. Choose a topic that fits the following criteria:

A topic that is relevant to your audience

A topic you’re excited about

A topic you have reasonable knowledge about

Organize Your Ideas 

Use a speech outline to organize your thoughts and ideas logically. 

Identify the introduction, body, and conclusion of your speech to help you stay focused and make your speech easier to follow.

Use Strong, Clear Language

Choose your words carefully, and use simple language that is easy to understand. Avoid jargon or technical terms that your audience may not be familiar with. 

Again, your word choice will depend on your audience. For example, you’ll want to steer clear of slang when speaking to an older, conservative crowd.

Use Transitions

Speech transitions are words and phrases that allow you to move smoothly from one point to another. Use transitional words and phrases like “besides” to help your audience follow your thought process and understand how your points are connected.

Add Variety to Speech

A speech that is monotonous or lacks variety may cause your audience to lose interest. 

Including a variety of elements in your speech, such as anecdotes, examples, and visual aids, can help keep your audience engaged and interested. 

Practice, Practice, Practice

Practice your speech out loud to ensure it flows well and you’re comfortable with the material. Read your speech in front of the mirror or before someone you trust to give you critical feedback. Note the points for improvement, and incorporate them into how you deliver your speech.

End With a Strong Conclusion

How would you like to leave your audience members: inspired, informed, or mesmerized? Aim to end your speech on a high note. Summarize your main points, and leave your audience with a memorable takeaway.

Edit and Revise

Proofread and revise your speech to ensure it’s well written and error free. Use a grammar checker, such as ProWritingAid, to correct any grammar issues. You’ll also get suggestions on how to improve your sentence structures and transitions.

How to Write a Good Speech Introduction

speech introduction tips

The introduction can make or break your speech. It’s where you grab your audience’s attention to keep them engaged and state the purpose of your speech. 

An introduction also gives you the opportunity to establish your credibility. You should aim to give your audience a reason to listen to the rest of the speech rather than tuning out.

Here are some tips on how to create a positive first impression.

Start With a Hook

Begin your introduction with a hook that will grab your audience’s attention and make them want to listen. There are several options for a hook:

A statistic

A personal anecdote

Reference to a current or historical event

When thinking of an attention grabber, consider how appropriate and relevant it is to your audience and the purpose of the speech. For example, if you’re giving a speech to an older audience, you can make a historical reference that they can easily relate to.

speech hook ideas

Provide Context

Provide context by giving your audience some background information about the topic of your speech. This will help them understand the importance of what you are talking about and why they should care.

State Your Thesis

Clearly and concisely state the main point or purpose of your speech. Your thesis should be easy to follow and clearly outline the main argument and your stance. This will give your audience a clear understanding of what they can expect to learn from your presentation.

Preview Your Main Points

Give your audience a sense of the structure of your speech by briefly outlining the key points or arguments you will be making. They’ll know what to expect, and your speech will be easier to follow. 

Keep It Short

Your introduction should be concise and to the point, so don’t spend too much time on it. It’s important to keep your speech brief, and avoid including unnecessary or unrelated information. 

The goal is to engage and interest your audience, not bore them, so aim for a few well-chosen words rather than a lengthy introduction. Aim for your introduction to be about 10-15% of the total length of your speech.

4 types of speeches

A speech is just like any other piece of writing. You’ll need to identify your purpose, audience, and intention and then write accordingly. There are many types of speeches, and each type has its own expectations.

Let’s look at some of the most popular speeches and how to write them.

How to Write a Short Speech

Short speeches may be the most tedious to write because of how condensed and concise the information has to be. However, if you ever have to give a farewell, birthday tribute, or just a quick welcome, there are still some tips available to make your speech great.

Start by identifying your topic, title, and the purpose of your speech, which will set the foundation of your outline. Then, determine the main points of your speech; keep it short with two to three points. Remember, a short speech is typically less than ten minutes long, so keep your points concise and to the point.

Since you have limited time to make the most impact, incorporate powerful words or other engaging elements. For example, you could throw out a thought-provoking question or anecdote, which will grab your audience’s attention and keep them engaged.

Finally, once you’ve written your speech, review it for brevity and clarity. 

how can i write a speech

Be confident about grammar

Check every email, essay, or story for grammar mistakes. Fix them before you press send.

How to Write a Presentation Speech

A presentation speech is used to inform, persuade, explain, or demonstrate a particular topic.

Presentation speeches are well structured and follow a logical flow. They have an introduction, body, and conclusion. Use transition words and phrases to help your speech flow smoothly and prevent it from appearing disjointed.

You can use ProWritingAid to organize your speech and make it even clearer. ProWritingAid’s transition report will show you whether you’re using transitions effectively in your speech.

How to Write a Debate Speech

A debate is a formal argument on a particular topic. Debate speeches are persuasive since the aim is to convince the audience to agree with a stance.

Like most other speeches, a debate speech also follows the introduction, body, conclusion outline. This format helps the audience follow the speaker’s point in a linear and logical way.

When writing your introduction, clarify your stance so it’s clear to the audience. Anyone reading or listening to your speech shouldn’t have any doubt about your position on the topic. Take some time to prepare a solid opener, which can be an interesting fact, a personal story, or even a powerful quote.

The introduction also gives you the opportunity to explain terms your audience will need to understand throughout the speech. You should also provide an overview of your main points, but don’t spend long divulging too much.

Each body paragraph should cover a main point, whether that’s a key idea or a main claim, and each paragraph should begin with a topic sentence. The topic sentence is an initial sentence that summarizes the idea being presented. 

Your conclusion should be a simple and clear reiteration of the points you made in the thesis statement and body paragraphs. Add an attention-grabbing element to leave a lasting impression on your audience.

Remember to use strong and emotive language throughout your speech, which makes it more likely for your audience to feel emotionally connected to your stance.

Always use transition words and phrases to maintain a logical flow between your arguments. Finally, edit and proofread your work for any potential grammar, punctuation, or spelling mistakes.

How to Write an Elevator Speech

An elevator speech is a brief speech that’s used to pitch a product, service, expertise, or credentials.

You have 30–60 seconds to persuade someone to act how you’d like: the same time as a quick elevator ride.

An effective elevator speech should contain an introduction, a clear value proposition, and a strong conclusion. 

elevator speech definition

Your introduction should be polite and clear. Briefly explain who you are, what you do, and what you are offering. For example, if you’re pitching your expertise, condense your background into two sentences. Include things that will make your audience remember you.

End your speech with what you want to achieve. What are you trying to accomplish with this speech? Perhaps it’s a job opportunity, a follow-up meeting, or an internship.

Once you’ve written your speech, be sure to revise it for brevity. Then practice and record yourself to ensure you don’t go over the time limit.

Writing a good speech takes time, but these tips are a good start to improving your speech-writing process. If you encounter writer’s block, look up popular speeches for inspiration. Ask someone you trust to give you feedback once you’ve written your speech.

Finally, while ProWritingAid can’t write your speech for you, it can help you write in a cohesive and logical manner. It highlights any grammar, spelling, and punctuation issues. It also shows you suggestions on how to improve your sentence structure, transition, pacing, and readability, so your next speech can be impactful and memorable.

Ashleigh Ferguson is a Copywriter on the ProWritingAid Team. With an affinity for learning new things, you can always count on her to know some random fact. She’s a self-proclaimed ‘Fix-it Felix’ and a newly minted ‘candle lady’.

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  • Presentations
  • Public Speaking

The Best Source for PowerPoint Templates (With Unlimited Use)

Before we dive into how to make a speech, let's look at a powerful tool that can help you design your presentation.

Envato Elements is a great place to find PowerPoint templates to use with your speech. These presentation templates are professionally designed to impress.

Envato Elements PowerPoint Templates for Unlimited Use

Envato Elements is an excellent value because you get unlimited access to digital elements once you become a subscriber. Envato Elements has more than just presentation templates . You get:

  • stock images
  • and much more

To become a subscriber, just sign up and pay a low monthly fee.

Envato Elements has hundreds of premium PowerPoint templates.

Sample Public Speaking Scenario

Here's a possible public speaking scenario:

You've just opened a small web design business in your town, and you join the town Chamber of Commerce. As a result, you're invited to give a short, five-minute presentation at the next Chamber of Commerce meeting.

Coming up with a public speaking speech for the scenario described above could be a challenge if you've never written or given a public speech before. Fortunately, there are some speech-writing steps that you can use that'll make speech writing easier.

Let's use this example and walk through the steps for writing a speech.

7 Steps for Writing a Speech

The steps for writing a speech for public speaking are like the steps for writing a presentation in general. But at each stage of the writing process, you need to keep your audience in mind:

1. Research Your Audience

Whenever you do any type of writing you need to consider who you're trying to reach with your writing. Speech writing is no different. The more you know about your target audience, the more effective your writing will be.

In the example above, you know that your audience is going to be the other members of the Chamber of Commerce. They're likely to be small business owners just like you are.

Knowing your audience is important in great speech writing.

What to Do After You Research Your Audience:

Once you've defined your audience, you can gear your speech towards them. To do this, ask yourself questions like:

  • What does this audience need?
  • What problem can I solve for them?
  • Is there anything else I need to consider about my listeners?

In the example we're using for this tutorial, most small businesses in your town fit one of the following three situations:

  • They've got a website that works well.
  • They've got a website, but the design is outdated or doesn't work well.
  • They don't have a website.

2. Select a Topic

In this example your topic is already given. You've been invited to introduce your business. But you also know that the speech is going to be fairly short--only five minutes long.

While it's always a good idea to keep a speech focused, this is especially important for a short speech.

If I were writing the public speaking speech for the scenario we're working with, I'd narrow the topic down like this:

  • Create a list of the strengths of my business.
  • Compare the list of business strengths to the problems I observed with the other members' websites in the previous step.
  • Focus my presentation on the areas where my business strengths meet weaknesses (needs) of other Chamber of Commerce members.

Let's say that I noticed that quite a few members of the chamber have websites that use outdated fonts, and the sites aren't mobile-friendly. Instead of listing everything my web design business could possibly do, I'd focus my short speech on those areas where I observed a need.

You can use a similar process to narrow the topic down any time you need to write a speech.

Avoid the temptation of trying to cover too much information. Most people are so overwhelmed by the sheer amount of new data they receive each day that they can't keep up with it all. Your listeners are more likely to remember your public speaking speech if it's tightly focused on one or two points.

3. Research Your Topic

Research Your Topic

In the example we've been going over, you probably don't need to do a lot of research. And you've already narrowed your topic down.

But some public speaking situations may require that that you cover a topic that you're less familiar with. For more detailed speech writing tips on how to study your subject (and other public speaking tips), review the tutorial:

how can i write a speech

4. Write Your Speech

Once you've completed the steps above, you're ready to write your speech. Here are some basic speech writing tips:

  • Begin with an outline . To create a speech your audience will remember, you've got to be organized. An outline is one of the best ways to organize your thoughts.
  • Use a conversational tone . Write your speech the way you would normally talk. Work in some small talk or humor, if appropriate.
  • Use the speaker notes . Typically, speaker notes aren't seen by the audience. So, this is a good place to put reminders to yourself.
  • Be specific . It's better to give examples or statistics to support a point than it is to make a vague statement.
  • Use short sentences . It's likely you're not going to give your speech word for word anyway. Shorter sentences are easier to remember.

In this example scenario for the short speech we're preparing for the Chamber of Commerce, your outline could look something like this:

  • Introduction . Give your name and the name of your business. (Show title slide of website home page with URL)
  • Type of Business . Describe what you do in a sentence or two. (Show slide with bulleted list)
  • Give example of a recent web design project . Emphasize areas that you know the other businesses need. (Show slides with examples)
  • Conclusion.  Let the audience know that you'd be happy to help with their web design needs. Offer to talk to anyone who's interested after the meeting. (Show closing slide that includes contact information)
  • Give out handouts . Many presentation software packages allow you to print out your speech as a handout. For a networking-type presentation like the one in our example, this can be a good idea since it gives your listeners something to take with them that's got your contact information on it.

That simple speech format should be enough for the short speech in our example. If you find it's too short when you practice, you can always add more slides with examples.

If you've been asked to give a short speech, you can change the speech format above to fit your needs. If you're giving a longer speech, be sure to plan for audience breaks and question and answer sessions as you write.

5. Select a Presentation Tool

For most presentations, you'll want to use a professional presentation tool such as PowerPoint, Google Slides, or a similar package. A presentation tool allows you to add visual interest to your public speaking speech. Many of them allow you to add video or audio to further engage your audience.

If you don't already have a presentation tool, these tutorials can help you find the right one for your needs:

how can i write a speech

Once you've chosen a presentation tool, you're ready to choose a template for your presentation.

6. Select a Template and Finish

A presentation template controls the look and feel of your presentation. A good template design can make the difference between a memorable public speech with eye-catching graphics and a dull, forgettable talk.

You could design your own presentation template from scratch. But, if you've never designed a presentation template before, the result might look less than professional. And it could take a long time to get a good template. Plus, hiring a designer to create an original presentation template can be pricey.

Select a template that works for your presentation.

A smart shortcut for most small business owners is to invest in a professional presentation template. They can customize it to fit with their branding and marketing materials. If you choose this option, you'll save time and money. Plus, with a professional presentation template you get a proven result.

You can find some great-looking presentation templates at  Envato Elements  or  GraphicRiver . To browse through some example templates, look at these articles:

how can i write a speech

Even a short speech like the one we've been using as an example in this tutorial could benefit from a good tutorial. If you've never used a template before, these PowerPoint tutorials can help:

how can i write a speech

7. How to Make a Public Speech

How to Make a Speech

Now that you've completed all the steps above, you're ready to give your speech. Before you give your speech publicly, though, there are a few things you should remember:

  • Don't read your speech . If you can, memorize your speech. If you can't, it's okay to use note cards or even your outline--but don't read those either. Just refer to them if you get stuck.
  • Practice . Practice helps you get more comfortable with your speech. It'll also help you determine how your speech fits into the time slot you've been allotted.
  • Do use visual aids . Of course, your presentation template adds a visual element to your public speech. But if other visual aids work with your presentation, they can be helpful as well.
  • Dress comfortably, but professionally . The key is to fit in. If you're not sure how others at your meeting will be dressed, contact the organizer and ask.
  • Speak and stand naturally . It's normal to be a little nervous but try to act as naturally as you can. Even if you make a mistake, keep going. Your audience probably won't even notice.
  • Be enthusiastic . Excitement is contagious. If you're excited about your topic, your audience will likely be excited too.

In the example we're using in this tutorial (and with many public speaking opportunities), it's important not to disappear at the end of the meeting. Stick around and be prepared to interact individually with members of the audience. Have answers to questions anyone might have about your speech. And be sure to bring a stack of business cards to pass out.

5 Quick Tips to Make a Good Speech Great (& More Memorable)

After reading about the basics, here are some more tips on how to write a great speech really stand out:

1. Have a Strong Opening

A strong presentation opening will make your presentation more memorable.

Start your speech with a strong opening by presenting surprising facts or statistics. You could even start with a funny story or grand idea.

Another way to start your speech is to open with a question to spark your audience’s curiosity. If you engage your audience early in your speech, they're more likely to pay attention throughout your speech.

2. Connect With Your Audience

You want a speech that'll be memorable. One way to make your speech memorable is to connect with your audience. Using metaphors and analogies help your audience to connect and remember. For example, people use one writing tool to put the speech's theme in a 15-20 word short poem or memorable paragraph, then build your speech around it.

3. Have a Clear Structure

When your speech has a clear structure to it your speech becomes more memorable.

When writing your speech, have a clear path and a destination. Otherwise, you could have a disorganized speech. Messy speeches are unprofessional and forgettable. While writing your speech, leave out unnecessary information. Too many unnecessary details can cause people to lose focus.

4. Repeat Important Information

A key to writing memorable speeches is to repeat key phrases, words, and themes. When writing your speech, always bring your points back to your main point or theme. Repetition helps people remember your speech and drives home the topic of your speech.

5. Have a Strong Closing

Create a strong closing to your speech to make it more memorable.

Since the last thing that your audience listened to what your closing, they'll remember your closing the most. So, if your closing is forgettable, it can make your speech forgettable. So, recap your speech and repeat essential facts that you want the audience to remember in your closing.

Five PowerPoint Presentation Templates (From Envato Elements - For 2022)

If you’re writing a speech for a presentation, save time by using a premium presentation template:

1. Toetiec PowerPoint Presentation

Toetiec PowerPoint Presentation

Toetic PowerPoint Presentation has 90 unique slides and 1800 total slides that you can easily add your information onto. There are ten light and dark versions that come with this template. Also included in this template are vector icons, elements, and maps.

2. Suflen Multipurpose Presentation

Suflen Multipurpose Presntation

Suflen Multipurpose Presentation template has a professional design that can work for any presentation topic. This template comes with over 450 total slides. With this template, you've got five color themes to choose from. Also, this template comes with illustrations, graphics, and picture placeholders.

3. Virtually PowerPoint

Virtually PowerPoint

Virtually PowerPoint template is a modern and minimal style presentation template. This template comes with over 50 slides. You can use this template for any presentation theme.

4. Amarish PowerPoint Template

how can i write a speech

Amarish PowerPoint Template comes with five color themes that allow you to choose the color you want. This template is another multipurpose template that can work for any purpose. Also, this template comes with over 150 total slides and infographics, illustrations, and graphics.

5. Qubica PowerPoint Template

Qubica PowerPoint Template

Qubica PowerPoint Template comes with over 150 total slides and five premade color themes. Easily add images into your presentation template by dragging the image of your choice into the picture placeholder. Everything in this template is entirely editable.

Learn More About How to Write a Great Speech

Here are some other tutorials that provide more information on giving a speech:

how can i write a speech

Learn More About Making Great Presentations

Presentation Ebook

Download The Complete Guide to Making Great Presentations eBook now for FREE with a subscription to the Tuts+ Business Newsletter. Get your ideas formed into a powerful presentation that'll move your audience!

Make Your Next Speech Your Best Ever!

You've just learned how to write a good public speaking speech. You've been given a sample speech format and plenty of other speech writing tips and resources on how to write a good speech. You've seen some templates that'll really make a PowerPoint stand out.

Now, it's up to you to write the best speech for your needs. Good luck!

Editorial Note: This post has been updated with contributions from Sarah Joy . Sarah is a freelance instructor for Envato Tuts+.

Laura Spencer

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

What this handout is about

This handout will help you create an effective speech by establishing the purpose of your speech and making it easily understandable. It will also help you to analyze your audience and keep the audience interested.

What’s different about a speech?

Writing for public speaking isn’t so different from other types of writing. You want to engage your audience’s attention, convey your ideas in a logical manner and use reliable evidence to support your point. But the conditions for public speaking favor some writing qualities over others. When you write a speech, your audience is made up of listeners. They have only one chance to comprehend the information as you read it, so your speech must be well-organized and easily understood. In addition, the content of the speech and your delivery must fit the audience.

What’s your purpose?

People have gathered to hear you speak on a specific issue, and they expect to get something out of it immediately. And you, the speaker, hope to have an immediate effect on your audience. The purpose of your speech is to get the response you want. Most speeches invite audiences to react in one of three ways: feeling, thinking, or acting. For example, eulogies encourage emotional response from the audience; college lectures stimulate listeners to think about a topic from a different perspective; protest speeches in the Pit recommend actions the audience can take.

As you establish your purpose, ask yourself these questions:

  • What do you want the audience to learn or do?
  • If you are making an argument, why do you want them to agree with you?
  • If they already agree with you, why are you giving the speech?
  • How can your audience benefit from what you have to say?

Audience analysis

If your purpose is to get a certain response from your audience, you must consider who they are (or who you’re pretending they are). If you can identify ways to connect with your listeners, you can make your speech interesting and useful.

As you think of ways to appeal to your audience, ask yourself:

  • What do they have in common? Age? Interests? Ethnicity? Gender?
  • Do they know as much about your topic as you, or will you be introducing them to new ideas?
  • Why are these people listening to you? What are they looking for?
  • What level of detail will be effective for them?
  • What tone will be most effective in conveying your message?
  • What might offend or alienate them?

For more help, see our handout on audience .

Creating an effective introduction

Get their attention, otherwise known as “the hook”.

Think about how you can relate to these listeners and get them to relate to you or your topic. Appealing to your audience on a personal level captures their attention and concern, increasing the chances of a successful speech. Speakers often begin with anecdotes to hook their audience’s attention. Other methods include presenting shocking statistics, asking direct questions of the audience, or enlisting audience participation.

Establish context and/or motive

Explain why your topic is important. Consider your purpose and how you came to speak to this audience. You may also want to connect the material to related or larger issues as well, especially those that may be important to your audience.

Get to the point

Tell your listeners your thesis right away and explain how you will support it. Don’t spend as much time developing your introductory paragraph and leading up to the thesis statement as you would in a research paper for a course. Moving from the intro into the body of the speech quickly will help keep your audience interested. You may be tempted to create suspense by keeping the audience guessing about your thesis until the end, then springing the implications of your discussion on them. But if you do so, they will most likely become bored or confused.

For more help, see our handout on introductions .

Making your speech easy to understand

Repeat crucial points and buzzwords.

Especially in longer speeches, it’s a good idea to keep reminding your audience of the main points you’ve made. For example, you could link an earlier main point or key term as you transition into or wrap up a new point. You could also address the relationship between earlier points and new points through discussion within a body paragraph. Using buzzwords or key terms throughout your paper is also a good idea. If your thesis says you’re going to expose unethical behavior of medical insurance companies, make sure the use of “ethics” recurs instead of switching to “immoral” or simply “wrong.” Repetition of key terms makes it easier for your audience to take in and connect information.

Incorporate previews and summaries into the speech

For example:

“I’m here today to talk to you about three issues that threaten our educational system: First, … Second, … Third,”

“I’ve talked to you today about such and such.”

These kinds of verbal cues permit the people in the audience to put together the pieces of your speech without thinking too hard, so they can spend more time paying attention to its content.

Use especially strong transitions

This will help your listeners see how new information relates to what they’ve heard so far. If you set up a counterargument in one paragraph so you can demolish it in the next, begin the demolition by saying something like,

“But this argument makes no sense when you consider that . . . .”

If you’re providing additional information to support your main point, you could say,

“Another fact that supports my main point is . . . .”

Helping your audience listen

Rely on shorter, simpler sentence structures.

Don’t get too complicated when you’re asking an audience to remember everything you say. Avoid using too many subordinate clauses, and place subjects and verbs close together.

Too complicated:

The product, which was invented in 1908 by Orville Z. McGillicuddy in Des Moines, Iowa, and which was on store shelves approximately one year later, still sells well.

Easier to understand:

Orville Z. McGillicuddy invented the product in 1908 and introduced it into stores shortly afterward. Almost a century later, the product still sells well.

Limit pronoun use

Listeners may have a hard time remembering or figuring out what “it,” “they,” or “this” refers to. Be specific by using a key noun instead of unclear pronouns.

Pronoun problem:

The U.S. government has failed to protect us from the scourge of so-called reality television, which exploits sex, violence, and petty conflict, and calls it human nature. This cannot continue.

Why the last sentence is unclear: “This” what? The government’s failure? Reality TV? Human nature?

More specific:

The U.S. government has failed to protect us from the scourge of so-called reality television, which exploits sex, violence, and petty conflict, and calls it human nature. This failure cannot continue.

Keeping audience interest

Incorporate the rhetorical strategies of ethos, pathos, and logos.

When arguing a point, using ethos, pathos, and logos can help convince your audience to believe you and make your argument stronger. Ethos refers to an appeal to your audience by establishing your authenticity and trustworthiness as a speaker. If you employ pathos, you appeal to your audience’s emotions. Using logos includes the support of hard facts, statistics, and logical argumentation. The most effective speeches usually present a combination these rhetorical strategies.

Use statistics and quotations sparingly

Include only the most striking factual material to support your perspective, things that would likely stick in the listeners’ minds long after you’ve finished speaking. Otherwise, you run the risk of overwhelming your listeners with too much information.

Watch your tone

Be careful not to talk over the heads of your audience. On the other hand, don’t be condescending either. And as for grabbing their attention, yelling, cursing, using inappropriate humor, or brandishing a potentially offensive prop (say, autopsy photos) will only make the audience tune you out.

Creating an effective conclusion

Restate your main points, but don’t repeat them.

“I asked earlier why we should care about the rain forest. Now I hope it’s clear that . . .” “Remember how Mrs. Smith couldn’t afford her prescriptions? Under our plan, . . .”

Call to action

Speeches often close with an appeal to the audience to take action based on their new knowledge or understanding. If you do this, be sure the action you recommend is specific and realistic. For example, although your audience may not be able to affect foreign policy directly, they can vote or work for candidates whose foreign policy views they support. Relating the purpose of your speech to their lives not only creates a connection with your audience, but also reiterates the importance of your topic to them in particular or “the bigger picture.”

Practicing for effective presentation

Once you’ve completed a draft, read your speech to a friend or in front of a mirror. When you’ve finished reading, ask the following questions:

  • Which pieces of information are clearest?
  • Where did I connect with the audience?
  • Where might listeners lose the thread of my argument or description?
  • Where might listeners become bored?
  • Where did I have trouble speaking clearly and/or emphatically?
  • Did I stay within my time limit?

Other resources

  • Toastmasters International is a nonprofit group that provides communication and leadership training.
  • Allyn & Bacon Publishing’s Essence of Public Speaking Series is an extensive treatment of speech writing and delivery, including books on using humor, motivating your audience, word choice and presentation.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Boone, Louis E., David L. Kurtz, and Judy R. Block. 1997. Contemporary Business Communication . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Ehrlich, Henry. 1994. Writing Effective Speeches . New York: Marlowe.

Lamb, Sandra E. 1998. How to Write It: A Complete Guide to Everything You’ll Ever Write . Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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5 Tips on How to Write a Speech Essay

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When figuring out how to write a speech, the essay form can offer a good foundation for the process. Just like essays, all speeches have three main sections: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion.

However, unlike essays, speeches must be written to be heard as opposed to being read. You need to write a speech in a way that keeps the attention of an audience and helps paint a mental image at the same time. This means that your speech should contain some color, drama, or humor . It should have “flair.” Make your speech memorable by using attention-grabbing anecdotes and examples.

Determine the Type of Speech You're Writing

Since there are different types of speeches, your attention-grabbing techniques should fit the speech type.

Informative  and instructional  speeches inform your audience about a topic, event, or area of knowledge. This can be a how-to on podcasting for teens or a historical report on the Underground Railroad. It also can relate to health and beauty, such as "How to Shape Perfect Eyebrows," or hobby-related, such as "Make a Great Bag Out of Old Clothing."​

Persuasive  speeches attempt to convince or  persuade  the audience to join one side of an argument. You might write a speech about a life choice, such as, "Abstinence Can Save Your Life," or getting involved in the community, such as "The Benefits of Volunteering."

Entertaining  speeches entertain your audience, and topics may not practical. Your speech topic could be something like, "Life Is Like a Dirty Dorm," or "Can Potato Peels Predict the Future?"

Special occasion  speeches entertain or inform your audience, like graduation speeches and toasts at celebrations.

Explore the different types of speeches and decide what speech type fits your assignment.

Craft a Creative Speech Introduction / Grace Fleming

The introduction of the informative speech should contain an attention-grabber, followed by a statement about your topic. It should end with a strong transition into your body section.

As an example, consider a template for an informative speech called "African-American Heroines." The length of your speech will depend on the amount of time you have been allotted to speak.

The red section of the speech in the graphic provides the attention-grabber. It makes audience members think about what life would be like without civil rights. The last sentence states directly the purpose of the speech and leads into the speech body, which provides more details.

Determine the Flow of the Body of the Speech / Grace Fleming

The body of your speech can be organized in a number of ways, depending on your topic. Suggested organization patterns include:

  • Chronological: Provides the order of events in time;
  • Spatial: Gives an overview of physical arrangement or design;
  • Topical: Presents information one subject at a time;
  • Causal: Shows cause-and-effect pattern.

The speech pattern illustrated in the image in this slide is topical. The body is divided into sections that address different people (different topics). Speeches typically include three sections (topics) in the body. This speech would continue with a third section about Susie King Taylor.

Writing a Memorable Speech Conclusion

The conclusion of your speech should restate the main points you covered in your speech and end with a memorable statement. In the sample in this graphic, the red section restates the overall message you wanted to convey: that the three women you've mentioned had strength and courage, despite the odds they faced.

The quote is an attention-grabber since it is written in colorful language. The blue section ties the entire speech together with a small twist.

Address These Key Objectives

Whatever type of speech you decide to write, find ways to make your words memorable. Those elements include:

  • Clever quotes
  • Amusing stories   with a purpose
  • Meaningful transitions
  • A good ending

The structure of how to write your speech is just the start. You'll also need to finesse the speech a bit. Start by paying attention to your audience and their interests. Write the words you'll speak with passion and enthusiasm, but you also want your listeners to share that enthusiasm. When writing your attention-grabbing statements, make sure you are writing what will get their attention, not just yours.

Study Famous Speeches

Gain inspiration from others' speeches. Read famous speeches and look at the way they are constructed. Find things that stand out and figure out what makes it interesting. Oftentimes, speechwriters use rhetorical devices to make certain points easy to remember and to emphasize them. 

Get to the Point Quickly

Remember to begin and end your speech with something that will gain and hold the attention of your audience. If you spend too much time getting into your speech, people will zone out or start checking their phones. If you get them interested immediately, they will be more likely to stick with you until the end.

Keep It Conversational

How you deliver the speech is also important. When you  give the speech , think about the tone you should use, and be sure to write the speech in the same flow that you'd use in conversations. A great way to check this flow is to practice reading it out loud. If you stumble while reading or it feels monotone, look for ways to jazz up the words and improve the flow. 

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Public Affairs Council

Speechwriting 101: Writing an Effective Speech

Whether you are a communications pro or a human resources executive, the time will come when you will need to write a speech for yourself or someone else.  when that time comes, your career may depend on your success..

J. Lyman MacInnis, a corporate coach,  Toronto Star  columnist, accounting executive and author of  “ The Elements of Great Public Speaking ,”  has seen careers stalled – even damaged – by a failure to communicate messages effectively before groups of people. On the flip side, solid speechwriting skills can help launch and sustain a successful career.  What you need are forethought and methodical preparation.

Know Your Audience

Learn as much as possible about the audience and the event.  This will help you target the insights, experience or knowledge you have that this group wants or needs:

  • Why has the audience been brought together?
  • What do the members of the audience have in common?
  • How big an audience will it be?
  • What do they know, and what do they need to know?
  • Do they expect discussion about a specific subject and, if so, what?
  • What is the audience’s attitude and knowledge about the subject of your talk?
  • What is their attitude toward you as the speaker?
  • Why are they interested in your topic?

Choose Your Core Message

If the core message is on target, you can do other things wrong. But if the message is wrong, it doesn’t matter what you put around it.  To write the most effective speech, you should have significant knowledge about your topic, sincerely care about it and be eager to talk about it.  Focus on a message that is relevant to the target audience, and remember: an audience wants opinion. If you offer too little substance, your audience will label you a lightweight.  If you offer too many ideas, you make it difficult for them to know what’s important to you.

Research and Organize

Research until you drop.  This is where you pick up the information, connect the ideas and arrive at the insights that make your talk fresh.  You’ll have an easier time if you gather far more information than you need.  Arrange your research and notes into general categories and leave space between them. Then go back and rearrange. Fit related pieces together like a puzzle.

Develop Structure to Deliver Your Message

First, consider whether your goal is to inform, persuade, motivate or entertain.  Then outline your speech and fill in the details:

  • Introduction – The early minutes of a talk are important to establish your credibility and likeability.  Personal anecdotes often work well to get things started.  This is also where you’ll outline your main points.
  • Body – Get to the issues you’re there to address, limiting them to five points at most.  Then bolster those few points with illustrations, evidence and anecdotes.  Be passionate: your conviction can be as persuasive as the appeal of your ideas.
  • Conclusion – Wrap up with feeling as well as fact. End with something upbeat that will inspire your listeners.

You want to leave the audience exhilarated, not drained. In our fast-paced age, 20-25 minutes is about as long as anyone will listen attentively to a speech. As you write and edit your speech, the general rule is to allow about 90 seconds for every double-spaced page of copy.

Spice it Up

Once you have the basic structure of your speech, it’s time to add variety and interest.  Giving an audience exactly what it expects is like passing out sleeping pills. Remember that a speech is more like conversation than formal writing.  Its phrasing is loose – but without the extremes of slang, the incomplete thoughts, the interruptions that flavor everyday speech.

  • Give it rhythm. A good speech has pacing.
  • Vary the sentence structure. Use short sentences. Use occasional long ones to keep the audience alert. Fragments are fine if used sparingly and for emphasis.
  • Use the active voice and avoid passive sentences. Active forms of speech make your sentences more powerful.
  • Repeat key words and points. Besides helping your audience remember something, repetition builds greater awareness of central points or the main theme.
  • Ask rhetorical questions in a way that attracts your listeners’ attention.
  • Personal experiences and anecdotes help bolster your points and help you connect with the audience.
  • Use quotes. Good quotes work on several levels, forcing the audience to think. Make sure quotes are clearly attributed and said by someone your audience will probably recognize.

Be sure to use all of these devices sparingly in your speeches. If overused, the speech becomes exaggerated. Used with care, they will work well to move the speech along and help you deliver your message in an interesting, compelling way.

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Preparing to Write a Speech

Quick links, understanding the speech genre.

As you begin writing your speech, you must understand the speech genre , conduct research , and develop an outline .

Understanding the type of speech you’re giving is the first step in the speech writing process.

If you already know the genre of your speech, then feel free to move on towards the next step. If not, start with the prompt. The prompt often identifies the genre of speech. Does your prompt give the speech genre?

If not, here are a few principles to help you figure out the speech genre:

  • Highlight keywords. Words such as analyze , explain , and argue tell you something about the nature of the speech. Look up the keywords in a dictionary to be precise.
  • Look for goals laid out in the prompt. Does the prompt tell you to “ Update the classroom on the political events in Syria,” “ Report your research on the Epstein–Barr virus,”or “ Explain how to do something you do well”? These prompts exemplify informative goals. “ Persuade the audience of what you think is the best way to succeed on a mission trip” is explicitly a prompt for a persuasive/argumentative speech.
  • If you’re completely lost, ask your professor or visit the Rhetoric Center—and bring your prompt!

The two most common types of speeches are informative and argumentative.

For further information on the fundamentals of these different types of speeches, we recommend Public Speaking - Oakland Campus: Types of Speeches by University Library System, University of Pittsburgh. Click on either “Informative” or “Argumentative.”

However, because more speaking genres exist (stories, tributes, eulogies, etc.) it’s imperative to highlight keywords , look for goals in the prompt , and seek help when needed .

After understanding the assignment you’ll know better what you need to research. At this stage it’s important to remember principles and goals of information literacy. Ensuring credibility of the resources used is a primary goal of information literacy.

It’s important that when researching, you consider the credibility of the resources you’re using. Unreliable sources will send your audience a message that you are unreliable. This Tedx Talk breaks down how to identify a fake news article; the principles can be applied to any research.

Ask yourself the following questions:

  • Who is this publication and are they credible?
  • Who is the author? Do they have accessible information about them and are they a credible source?
  • With both of these in mind, is this article/journal/website credible? If you have any doubt, then err on the safe side.

In addition, you’ll need to find enough sources with enough varying perspectives that you can build your own expertise and credibility.

The resources available on Hekman Library will prove useful in the research process. In particular, we recommend you use the following links on Hekman’s page :

  • “How to ‘Search Start’”
  • “Finding Databases”
  • “Accessing Articles”
  • “Research Help”

Additional Resources Related to Research

  • Yale College Writing Center : Eight Strategies for Using Sources.
  • Colorado State University, WAC Clearinghouse : Evaluating Sources.
  • Calvin University—What Not To Do : a document about what not to do while researching.
  • Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) : Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing.

For most speech classes, the outline is the closest thing to a full script you will have. Some speeches are read from a printed text; some are memorized. But most academic speeches are extemporaneous: the speaker knows the speech well enough to deliver it without reading it, and an outline makes this possible.

(Please note: we’re talking about the final structure of the full-bodied speech, not the keyword notecards you deliver the speech from.)

The outline is a version of the complete speech and is your most important planning document. It is your draft of the full speech, just like a full draft of a paper. For papers an outline simply guides the writer in the writing process. For speeches the outline is reasonably identical with the speech (with slight wording changes).

A speech outline includes the general wording of every sentence, including transitions, and is written in complete sentences (the exact format may different from one teacher to another). If you’re turning the speech in to an instructor, the instructor will usually ask you to include a “specific purpose” and “thesis” before the introduction.

You don’t use the speech outline during the speech. For information regarding the version of the outline used during the speech itself, please see the notecard section on Delivery.

This is an informative speech on the differences between Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. This outline isn’t perfect: it should include more transition sentences, and the introduction and conclusion are too short. But overall, it displays the content and structure.

This next outline , on the medicinal and culinary properties of dandelions, was put together by the Calvin CAS department as an example outline. Notice how this outline identifies the transition sentences and provides further information for the supporting points.

Your outline doesn’t have to look exactly like either of these examples as long as it accomplishes the main function of an outline: to set out a full written version of your speech.

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How to write a speech

Part of English Non-fiction writing

Did you know?

The longest speech ever recorded in the UK Parliament was delivered in the House of Commons in 1828 and lasted for six hours!

Introduction to how to write a speech

Speeches are a powerful way of expressing your ideas to others.

When writing a speech, you need to think carefully about how you structure it to make sure it is easy for listeners to follow.

In order for it to be engaging, you need to consider the language you use, ensuring that you target your audience and their interests. In fact, there are a range of language techniques that can help to make your speech even more powerful.

Video on how to write a speech

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Find out how to write a speech

What is a speech?

A speech is a formal talk given to an audience. It has an aim and purpose – often to either inform and/or persuade, although it’s important to remember that some have other intentions too, eg to entertain.

Speeches are used in many different contexts. A bride or groom may give a speech at their wedding. A politician or activist may give a speech to inform others of the need for change, and persuade them of the right way to bring it about. A manager may need to give a speech to their employees or bosses. A speech may even be given when you leave school to reflect upon your time in education and inspire others to look to the future.

Speeches are not necessarily something we do every day, but speech writing is a useful skill to have.

A group of students showing various emotions including happiness, confusion, worry and concentration. Caption reads 'Test yourself'.

Show answer Hide answer

Answer: a) To inform and/or persuade

Famous speeches

Throughout history, speeches have had a massive impact on social change and political decisions. Famous speeches that are credited as having helped change the world include:

‘I Have a Dream’ by Martin Luther King Jr in 1963. It was given as part of the USA Civil Rights movement in order to help bring about racial equality.

‘We shall fight on the beaches’ by Winston Churchill in 1940. It was a speech delivered to MPs in the UK House of Commons, encouraging the nation to rise to the challenges of World War Two and not to give up hope of victory.

‘I am prepared to die’ by Nelson Mandela in 1964, given as part of the fight to end apartheid and bring about a free and equal society for both black and white people in South Africa.

‘Freedom or Death’ by Emmeline Pankhurst in 1913 was a speech given as part of the fight for women’s right to vote.

In more recent times, we have seen a number of celebrities give speeches on a range of social, political and environmental issues. For instance:

Emma Watson’s ‘HeForShe’ speech given at the United Nations Headquarters as part of the UN campaign to end global gender inequality.

Leonardo DiCaprio’s speech on climate change at the opening of the 2014 UN Climate Summit.

There are also wide ranging TED Talks that are now available on almost any topic imaginable that have gone on to inform, persuade and inspire others around the world.

More on Non-fiction writing

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Speech Writing

Speech Format

Barbara P

Understanding Speech Format - Simple Steps for Outlining

speech format

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Writing a speech can be stressful and confusing for many people. Feeling lost and overwhelmed without a clear plan can make the task even harder.

But learning the basics of speech format can make it easier and even enjoyable. This guide will show you step-by-step how to write great speeches with examples and templates.

Arrow Down

  • 1. How to Write a Speech Format?
  • 2. Speech Format Examples for Different Academic Levels
  • 3. Speech Formats For Different Types of Speeches
  • 4. How to Rehearse a Speech?

How to Write a Speech Format?

Speech writing gives you a chance to leave an everlasting and meaningful impression on the audience. You might have always believed that you are not good at public speaking. And speech writing may bring you out in cold sweats, but this is different.

Let’s see how one should write a great speech that engages the audience.

Step 1 - Decide the Purpose of Your Speech 

To understand the purpose of your speech, consider these queries:

  • What is the main motive behind it?
  • Is it to inform or persuade? Is it to entertain or demonstrate? Or is it a combination of these?
  • What do you want to achieve with your speech?
  • Do you want your audience to act upon something, or do you want to convince them to believe what you are saying?

Your answer to all of these questions will decide the organizational structure, type of speech, tone, and content as well. 

Identify your listeners and decide which type of speech is suitable for your targeted audience. If you are going to deliver a speech at a wedding, write a special occasion speech . Similarly, if your motive is to persuade the audience, you’ll have to write a persuasive speech .

Step 2 - Choose a Speech Topic 

Choose an effective speech topic that catches the audience’s attention immediately. A good speech topic is your first step to impress the audience.

You can select any topic according to the type of speech you need to deliver. Pick a motivational speech topic if you want to get the audience to act upon your message. If you want to make your audience laugh, decide on an entertaining speech topic .

Step 3 - Conduct Research 

Conduct thorough research on your particular subject to collect relevant material. Finding credible and updated material is crucial, as good research is the backbone of sound speech. 

Before you write your speech, you need to know what your speech will be about exactly. And how long it needs to be, i.e., 5 minutes or 30 minutes long. So, always collect the data according to the time limit. 

For a 5-minute speech, you only need a brief material. Your speech should revolve around the central idea. If your speech is 30 minutes long, you need to collect enough details to cover in 30 minutes. 

Step 4 - Create an Outline

Now that you have the material for your speech, craft an outline to organize your material. Drafting an outline at first always saves precious time. 

Write keywords in the outline that prompt you to remember what you’ll include in your speech. Having an outline for your speech is like having a road map that guides you throughout the speech delivery.

As mentioned before, the basic speech outline format consists of three things:

  • Introduction

Here is a speech outline template that you can use while crafting an outline for your speech.

Speech Format Outline

Step 5 - Write a Strong Introduction

An introduction will give a brief overview of what you are going to tell your audience. Here are the five things that you should include in your introduction paragraph.

  • Greetings and Your Introduction

Decide how you are going to greet your audience and how you will introduce yourself to the audience. You can start with a fact, a quotation, posing a rhetorical question, or even with one-liner humor. 

Keep in mind that whatever you start with, must be related to your topic and suitable for your audience.

  • A Precise Thesis Statement

A thesis statement is a brief summary of your speech, and it provides the main message of your speech. 

  • Your Credibility

You need to establish your credibility to make your speech effective. Cite your expertise and qualification that gives you the right to speak about your speech topic.

  • Brief Overview

Briefly tell your audience what you are going to share so that they have an idea of what to expect from your speech. 

  • Benefits of Listening to Your Speech

Convince your audience why they should listen to you. Tell them what's in your speech for them and why should they pay attention. Give them reasons and be specific about the benefits.

Step 6 - Write a Detailed Body 

The body of your speech is where you will write the details of what you want to share with your audience. Generally, the body section has three main points, but it can have more than 3 points. 

It is always a good idea to be specific and inform the audience of only essential things. 

Quite frankly, if you introduce the audience to an abundance of ideas or topics, they might not remember them all! To leave a lasting impact, decide on 2 or 3 ideas, so the crowd remembers them all!

While crafting the body section of your speech, you should keep the following things in mind:

  • Choose the three strongest points that describe your topic efficiently. 
  • Always provide supporting examples. Make sure that the evidence you provide matches the type of speech you are going to write.
  • Use transition phrases to make a logical connection between the details.
  • Use visual aids like images, graphs, or tables to help your audience understand your topic better.
  • Keep the sentence structures in check. Make sure there are no grammatical errors and follow an engaging tone. 

Step 7 - Craft a Memorable Conclusion

The final section is the conclusion that sums up the whole speech. Here is how you can write an effective speech conclusion that summarizes and draws all the details together:

  • Summarize all the main points
  • Restate the thesis statement to reinforce your message
  • Remind the audience about the benefits they’ll get if they carry out what you have proposed.
  • Provide a call to action at the end of your speech

Step 8 - Format and Polish Your Speech 

After the final draft, the next step is editing and formatting. Read your speech aloud and check the flow and organization of the information. Refine the draft by removing unnecessary things and correcting any grammatical mistakes.

Proofread your speech to make sure it contains all the vital information. Correct the structure if needed, and ensure that your speech is free from all kinds of mistakes. Revise your speech as many times as possible.

Now, let’s take a look at some comprehensive speech format examples for multiple academic levels and various occasions.

Speech Format Examples for Different Academic Levels

Follow these speech examples to learn how to properly format a speech and easily get through the speech-writing process.

Speech Format for Class 8

Speech Format for Class 9

Speech Format for Class 10

Speech Format for Class 11

Speech Format for Class 12

Speech Format O Level

Speech Formats For Different Types of Speeches

When preparing a speech, understanding the format suitable for your specific occasion is crucial. Different types of speeches require different structures to effectively convey your message and engage your audience.

Here are some sample formats for kinds of speeches:

Debate Speech Format

Impromptu Speech Format

Formal Speech Format

Public Speech Format

Informative Speech Format

Extemporaneous Speech Format

Speech Formats For Different Occasions

Different occasions call for different types of speeches, each with its unique structure and style. Knowing how to format your speech for the occasion helps to make your speech memorable. 

Here are a few speech templates made according to specific events:

Best Man Speech Format

College Speech Format

Welcome Speech Format in English

Persuasive Speech Format

Want to see some outstanding speech examples ? Head over to our detailed blog!

How to Rehearse a Speech?

Rehearsal plays an important role in delivering an effective presentation. You need to practice a lot to be confident with your speech and deliver it perfectly. Here is how you can do it efficiently:

  • Set the time on the stopwatch that is going to be allocated to you. You need to finish your speech within the allocated time.
  • Read your speech out loud. Hearing yourself will help you familiarize yourself with the flow of your speech quickly. Remove or change the phrases that sound awkward, and fix the organization of information.
  • Your habitual unconscious gestures
  • Irregular breathing because of long sentences
  • Taking breaks or pauses at the wrong places
  • The body posture
  • Raising or dropping the voice
  • Repeated fillers, i.e., umm, err, uhh, etc
  • Lack of smiling and eye contact
  • Tone variation
  • If you experience any problems, stop and fix the problem before starting again from where you left off.
  • Make notes of where you need to remember to do something. It will help you improve your speech delivery.
  • If possible, do a proper dress rehearsal at the actual venue in front of a bunch of friends. It will help you to get comfortable with the dress, stage, and actual presentation situation.

If you’ve plenty of time, rehearse at least three times or more, before the final presentation. The more you do the rehearsals, the more you build up your confidence and the easier it becomes to deliver your speech.

Wrapping it up, if you came up with a speech after following the guide, you should be able to grab the attention of the audience within seconds! 

This guide contains all the essentials to crafting a compelling speech and presenting it in a meaningful way!

However, if you still need some help, you can hire a professional writer. Our speech writing service provides top-notch speeches at cheap prices.

You can request your speech at our ' do my essay ' service and get expertly crafted speeches to impress your audience.

So why wait? Hire our writing service and let our experts handle your speech-writing needs!

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Grow » thrive, 7 steps to writing a great speech.

These seven steps will help you write a memorable and effective speech.

 Person giving a speech to a group of people.

If you’re preparing for a presentation, the work really begins when you sit down to write your speech. A great speech will engage the audience and can lead to greater personal and professional success. Here are seven steps to writing an effective speech.

Know what your core message is

When preparing to write a speech, you want to start by thinking about the core message you want to share. Your core message should be a topic you’re knowledgeable and passionate about and one that’s relevant to your audience.

The topic should be delivered in a way that’s easy to understand and concise. Ideally, your audience should be able to explain what the speech was about in just one or two sentences.

Think about your audience

Next, you want to learn as much as possible about your audience because this will inform how you deliver the speech. The language you use and the examples you share will depend on the audience you’re speaking to.

As you learn more about your audience, you want to consider the circumstances that brought them together. Are they gathering for a business conference, or is it for a charity event? How big will the audience be, and how knowledgeable are they about the subject you’re speaking on?

[Read more: How to Give a Great Presentation ]

Do your research

The amount of research you complete will depend on how familiar you are with your topic. But even if it’s a topic you know inside and out, it’s a good idea to do at least some research. This will help you gather new information and come up with unique and fresh ideas.

The amount of research you complete will depend on how familiar you are with your topic. But even if it’s a topic you know inside and out, it’s a good idea to do at least some research.

Come up with an outline

Now it’s time to organize your information and ideas into a detailed outline. Organizing your information will make it easier once it’s time to sit down and write the speech. Your outline should include three main parts:

  • Introduction : The introduction sets the stage for the information you’ll be sharing. It’s a good idea to start with a story that will catch your audience’s attention. From there, you can outline what you’ll be sharing and the conclusion you’ll reach.
  • Body : The body of your speech is where you’ll highlight the overarching points you’re trying to make. But be careful not to throw too much information at your audience — two to three main points are enough.
  • Conclusion : During the conclusion, you’ll summarize your core message and what the audience should take away from the speech. Look for ways to end your speech on a strong note, so the audience understands why this topic matters and how they can take action.

Write a draft

Once you have an outline, you can begin drafting your speech. Don’t try to make your speech perfect during the drafting stage — just try to get your ideas on paper. You can come back to revise and improve your speech later.

Choose a presentation tool

If you’re speaking in a professional setting, you’ll likely want to compliment your speech with a presentation tool like PowerPoint. Using a slide deck is a great way to add a visual element to your speech that will further engage the audience. Using a template can make it easier to develop a well-designed slide deck.

[Read more: 6 Business Presentation Tools for Small Businesses ]

Practice and revise

Great speeches take time to write, so you should plan to practice and revise your speech as needed. You can practice your speech in front of a friend or family member, ask for their feedback, and then adjust your speech accordingly.

As you’re revising, focus on using conversational language and short sentences. Look for any areas that are too general or vague, and try to come up with specific examples that will back up your core message.

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Microsoft 365 Life Hacks > Writing > How To Write a Speech Everyone Will Remember (In a Good Way)

How To Write a Speech Everyone Will Remember (In a Good Way)

Speeches have the power to move, inspire and celebrate some of life’s greatest moments—or make your audience scout out the nearest exit. To keep an audience engaged and deliver a meaningful or persuasive speech—you have to do more than stand up and give an impromptu talk to a room full of people. You need to know how to write a good speech.

A person writing a speech on a tablet

Whether you’re speaking at a graduation or a wedding reception, every good speech follows four important guidelines:

1. Keep it short & sweet. One of the best markers of a good speech is that it ends before people get antsy.

2. Don’t make it about you. You may have everyone’s attention, but keep the spotlight where it belongs—on the audience.

3. Practice, practice, practice. Practice with a friend, use a free coaching tool , or record yourself and listen for any parts that venture off topic or don’t need to be included.

4. Watch your grammar. Run a grammar check on your script to avoid embarrassing errors or even possible bias in your final speech.

Different types of speeches have special considerations, too. Here are some of the most common types, along with additional tips to deliver them well.

How to write a best man speech or maid of honor speech :

  • Be generous with compliments. Thank the other speakers, congratulate the newlyweds, and say a few nice words about the ceremony, the other guests, and the couple themselves. Convey the warmth that the occasion brings.
  • Be strategically funny. You’ll probably have people from different generations and cultures there to celebrate, and possibly even the boss or colleagues of the bride and groom. Humor is great, but don’t cross the line with things like inappropriate jokes, references to exes, or embarrassing anecdotes that could make Grandma blush and give the newlyweds something to fight about on their honeymoon.
  • End on a celebratory note. Leave the happy couple and their guests feeling even more joyful. Read a memorable quote or love poem, and then propose a toast or invite the guests to applaud the happy couple.

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How to write a graduation speech :

Gather inspiration. Some of history’s best graduation speeches are posted online as transcripts and videos. Watch them for inspiration on topics, delivery, and overall themes that you can emulate in your own speech.

  • Acknowledge the graduates and their supporters. Thank and acknowledge the faculty and families while you name and celebrate the accomplishments of the graduates. Hitting an educational milestone is a team effort that deserves broad recognition.
  • End with an inspirational look toward the future. Graduation is an ending that is also a beginning. End your speech with a positive quote or your own heartfelt message about a bright future.

How to write a persuasive speech :

  • Describe the current situation in detail. Set the stage by giving context to the idea or argument you’re going to introduce. Describe the current state along with any different viewpoints that are being widely shared.
  • Share the drawbacks of inaction. Describe the pitfalls of not adopting an idea, changing an approach, or doing the thing you’d like them to do. Provide supporting facts that demonstrate how important it is to find a solution.
  • Introduce your solution. Share your idea or solution and describe why it’s the best approach. Paint a picture of how things will be once the solution is in place. Clearly tie it to the pitfalls you described before. End with a clear call to action.

How to write an informative speech:

  • Create a strong thesis. After you set the context with a brief introduction, deliver a strong, clear thesis statement. Make a note to follow your statement with a pause to emphasize the importance of your thesis statement and allow the audience to fully take it in.
  • Consider the audience. Focusing on your audience, decide what type of information and what level of detail they’ll be most interested in. Include stories or anecdotes that will resonate.
  • End with a concluding statement. Summarize the information you shared and why your audience should care. End your speech with a strong, concise conclusion that reiterates your thesis statement and leaves your audience with the main takeaway of your speech.

Above all, have fun. A good speech is a gift to your audience that they’ll remember for years to come.

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6 Tips for Writing a Persuasive Speech (On Any Topic)


B y far, the best way to learn how to write speeches is to read the great ones, from Pericles’ Funeral Oration, to Dr. King’s Mountaintop speech, to Faulkner’s Nobel acceptance address. But if you’re looking for some quick tips, here are a few things to bear in mind next time you’re asked to give a speech:

1. Write like you talk. There is no First Law of Speechwriting, but if there were, it would probably be something like this: a speech is meant to be spoken, not read. That simple (and obvious) fact has a few important (and less obvious) implications. Use short words. Write short sentences. Avoid awkward constructions that might cause a speaker to stumble. Tip: Read the speech aloud as you’re writing. If you do it enough, you’ll start hearing the words when you type them.

2. Tell a story . I once wrote speeches for a governor whose aide told me: speechwriting is about slinging soundbites together. That approach is a recipe for writing neither good speeches nor good soundbites. Whenever we sat down to discuss a speech for the first time, President Obama would ask us: What’s the story we’re trying to tell? Like any good story, a speech has its own narrative arc. For the President, it’s usually a slow warm-up, a substantive middle, and an inspirational end. That’s his style. Tell your story in whatever way feels natural. Tip: A good story can be a lot more powerful than the most compelling facts and statistics.

3. Structure matters . It’s usually harder to figure out the right structure for a speech – the order of the points to make – than the words themselves. The order of those points matters because an argument that’s clear and logical is more likely to be persuasive. There is a reason that some of America’s greatest speechwriters – from Lincoln to JFK’s speechwriter Ted Sorensen to President Obama himself – studied the law, a profession that values the ability to make a logical argument. Tip: Lists (like this one) are one way to impose a structure on a speech.

4. Be concise. It is said that Woodrow Wilson once gave the following reply to a speaking request: “If you’d like me to speak for five minutes, I’ll need a month to prepare. If you’d like me to speak for 20 minutes, I’ll need two weeks. But if you’d like me to speak for an hour, I’m ready right now.” As Wilson knew, it’s harder to be concise than verbose. But the best way to make a point is concisely, as Churchill did when he announced during a wartime address: “The news from France is very bad.” Next time you think you can’t afford to cut that paragraph you love, remember: the Gettysburg Address, perhaps the greatest speech in American history, is fewer than 300 words. Tip: Challenge yourself to cut as many words as possible from each sentence without losing the line’s meaning.

5. Be authentic. If you’ve ever given a speech, you’ve probably been told, “Just speak from the heart.” It’s not very helpful writing advice, but that doesn’t mean it’s wrong. Once, when we were writing President Obama’s 2008 Democratic Convention address, we got stuck on a certain section of the speech. The President advised us: Think about the moment we’re in, think about what the country is going through, and write something that feels true. It was a helpful reminder to stop focusing on polls and soundbites and simply say something we believed in as simply as we could. Tip: Sharing a personal story can help you find your voice and build a connection with the audience.

6. Don’t just speak – say something. When Michelangelo was tasked with painting the Sistine Chapel, he considered it a thankless job. He would have much rather spent his time sculpting than painting. But he used the occasion to paint perhaps the most revered fresco in history. So, the next time you’re asked to speak, don’t just write a speech, write a great one. A speech’s greatness has as much to do with its values as anything else. No one remembers the speeches of segregationists, though there were no doubt eloquent preachers spewing hate in the days of Jim Crow. No one remembers Hitler’s speeches, though few would dispute his oratorical prowess. Of course, Hitler, like the segregationists, lost. But it’s also because hope will always be more compelling than hate. It’s no accident that the best-known, best-loved speech in history – the Sermon on the Mount – is an articulation of humanity’s highest ideals. Tip: Before sitting down to write, get inspired by reading great speeches from collections like William Safire’s “Lend Me Your Ears.”

Adam Frankel is VP, External Affairs at Andela . Previously, he was Special Assistant and Senior Speechwriter to President Barack Obama.

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How to Write a Great Speech, According to the Obamas’ Speechwriter

By Liam Freeman

Image may contain Sitting Human Person Tie Accessories Accessory Furniture Couch Suit Coat Clothing and Overcoat

It was the summer of 1998, the end of her junior year of college, when Sarah Hurwitz fell in love with the art form of writing the perfect speech, having scored an internship at the White House in Vice President Al Gore’s speechwriting office. “Every day, his staff used words to move, inspire, comfort, and empower people,” she recalls. “I still can’t imagine a better way to spend a career.”

And what an extraordinary career Hurwitz’s has been. After graduating from Harvard Law School, she became the chief speechwriter for Hillary Rodham Clinton on her 2008 presidential campaign. Eventually, she returned to the White House, serving as the head speechwriter for first lady Michelle Obama and as a senior speechwriter for President Barack Obama between 2009 and 2017.

Here, Hurwitz shares 11 nuggets of speechwriting wisdom that she’s garnered along the way so that you can shine at your next public address, whether that be a televised political debate, a work presentation, or a toast at your best friend’s wedding.

1. Channel the person who is speaking

The true art of speechwriting isn’t scripting someone—it’s channeling their voice. My first step when writing a speech for Mrs. Obama would be to sit down with her and ask, “What would you like to say?” She knows who she is, and she always knows what she wants to say. She’s also a naturally gifted speaker and writer, so I’d transcribe as she talked, forming the basis of the first draft.

2. Research and understand your audience

Who are you talking to? What are they concerned about? Why are you speaking to them? How well do they know you? What’s the venue? If Mrs. Obama was speaking at a university, for example, it was important to understand the history and student body of that university. If you’re giving a toast at your best friend’s wedding, you need to know if you can tell a story that’s a bit edgy or if their family will get offended.

3. Know that structure is destiny

If you have a bad structure, you can’t have a good speech. Every paragraph should flow logically from one to the next. When I’m trying to figure out the structure of a speech, I’ll often print it out and cut it up with scissors so I can move parts around. It’s only then that I realize the order is wrong or I see that I’m repeating myself or I notice that certain passages could be combined.

4. Seek multiple opinions  

It’s really important to ask other people to look at your speech—as many as possible, especially if you’re speaking to a community that you don’t know well. You need to find someone from that audience who understands its cultural sensitivities and norms so you speak in a way that inspires people rather than causing offense.

5. Throw the rulebook out of the window

Writing to be read and writing to be heard are two very different skills. Spoken language doesn’t need to conform to grammar and punctuation norms. I often use ellipses instead of commas to indicate pauses because they’re easier to see. It’s fine to space things weirdly on the page or add notations if it helps you—all that matters is how the words sound coming out of your mouth.

With that in mind, you should edit out loud. Don’t just sit looking at your computer screen—print the speech out, practice delivering it, and edit as you go.

Image may contain Human Person Sitting Michelle Obama Furniture Clothing and Apparel Sarah Hurwitz Speech Speech Writing

6. Listening is the key to great speaking

There were hundreds of occasions when Mrs. Obama gave me feedback that ultimately influenced how I write. My drafts would be covered in her handwritten edits: “Are the transitions seamless? Is the structure logical? Is this language the most vivid and moving that it can be?” And I would learn from those edits.

As I write, I hear her voice in my head saying things like, “This part is getting bogged down in the weeds,“ “we’re missing the beating heart,” “we’re missing the real human side of this issue.” Hone your ability to identify the weakest parts that aren’t working.

7. Speak like you usually do

It’s fine to ask yourself, “What will make me sound smart or powerful or funny?’”or “What does the audience want to hear?” But your first question should really be, “What is the deepest, most important truth that I can tell at this particular moment?” All too often people focus on how they’re going to say something rather than on what they’re actually going to say.

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Then, when they give a speech, they often take on an overly formal and stiff giving-a-speech voice or they slip into their professional jargon and use words that no one understands. If something feels unnatural or awkward when you say it, go back and rewrite it until it sounds like you.

8. Show, don’t tell

This may sound like a basic writing tip, but it’s rare that people execute this well. If you’re bored during a speech, it’s probably because the person is telling not showing. Mrs. Obama didn’t start her 2016 Democratic National Convention speech by saying: “On my daughter’s first day of school at the White House, I was nervous, afraid, and anxious.” She said: “I will never forget that winter morning as I watched our girls, just 7 and 10 years old, pile into those black SUVs with all those big men with guns. And I saw their little faces pressed up against the window, and the only thing I could think was, What have we done?” It’s such a searing image. Anytime you find yourself using a lot of adjectives, stop, step back, and think about painting a picture for people instead.

9. Don’t let technology get in the way

We’re living in the age of Zoom, and many people are delivering speeches virtually, which creates a whole new set of challenges. The audience often has their cameras turned off, or even if they’re on, there’s a disconnect. For this reason, I’d advise against a lecture-style format on Zoom. Instead, opt for interview style—give your host a set of questions to ask you so you can convey your message. This back-and-forth is more engaging via video calls.

10. Watch the clock

People are distracted today and have limited bandwidth to listen to what you are saying, so it’s really important to focus your message. Do you want them to feel reassured, courageous, fired up? Whatever the emotion, really think about that as you’re writing your speech. As for the length, it depends on your venue. If you’re doing a toast at your best friend’s wedding, keep it to five minutes (it’s not your wedding!), and for a keynote speech, no longer than 20 minutes.

11. Consider the format

Unless you have an incredible memory, don’t put yourself under added pressure by trying to learn your speech by heart. That said, what you read from matters. Some speakers are most comfortable with their speech when it’s written out verbatim. For others, reading a speech word for word feels awkward. Try experimenting with different formats, such as bullet points or cue cards. If you’re printing your remarks out on paper, keep the text on the top two-thirds of the page—otherwise, as you get to the bottom of the page, you’ll have to bend your neck to look down, and you’ll end up swallowing your words and breaking eye contact with your audience.  *Sarah Hurwitz ’s debut book, Here All Along (Penguin Random House), is out now.

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15 Powerful Persuasive Speech Examples to Inspire Your Next Talk

  • The Speaker Lab
  • June 24, 2024

Table of Contents

Crafting a persuasive speech that captivates your audience and drives them to action is no easy feat. If you’re hitting the books, climbing the corporate ladder, or just dreaming of rocking the stage with your speeches, having a killer set of persuasive speech examples can totally change your game. In this post, we’ve curated some of the most compelling and inspiring persuasive speech examples to help you elevate your own speaking skills. So buckle up and grab your pen, because we’re diving into the secrets behind these unforgettable speeches.

What is a Persuasive Speech?

When we talk about a persuasive speech , we refer to a form of communication that seeks to influence the audience’s beliefs or actions. In the course of a persuasive speech, a person will present compelling arguments—backed by evidence and persuasive techniques—in order to convince listeners to embrace a specific viewpoint or take a particular course of action. Persuasive speeches are used in many different areas of life, such as in a school or university setting, in a job, or in a social setting.

When preparing to give a persuasive speech, always choose a topic or cause you’re interested in and passionate about. If you want to convince other people to agree with your stance, you must be seen to believe in it yourself. In addition, it helps to choose a topic that people care about and hasn’t been overdone.

Funny Persuasive Speech Examples

Looking for some funny persuasive speech examples to inspire your next presentation? You’ve come to the right place. Humor is a powerful tool when it comes to persuasion. It can help you connect with your audience, make your message more memorable, and even diffuse tension around controversial topics.

One classic example comes from David McCullough, Jr.’s high school commencement speech entitled “You Are Not Special.” While the title might not sound funny, McCullough delivers a hilarious reality check to graduates, poking fun at the coddling and praise they’ve received growing up. His ultimate message—that true success comes from hard work and taking risks—is made all the more powerful by his humorous approach.

But what makes funny persuasive speeches so effective? For one, humor helps the speakers build rapport with their audiences. Laughter is a shared experience that brings people together and makes them more open to new ideas. Additionally, injecting some levity into a speech can make the overall message more palatable and less preachy.

Of course, using humor in a persuasive speech requires some finesse. The jokes should be tasteful, relevant to your overall message, and not offensive to your audience. When in doubt, err on the side of caution. After all, a flat joke is better than one that leaves listeners cringing.

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Persuasive Speech Examples About Public Policy

Policy persuasive speeches advocate for a particular course of action on a public policy issue. These speeches go beyond simply raising awareness about a problem – they propose concrete solutions and try to sway the audience to support a specific plan.

One powerful policy persuasive speech example comes from Greta Thunberg’s address to the UN Climate Action Summit in 2019 . Thunberg doesn’t mince words when lambasting world leaders for their inaction on climate change. But she also lays out clear policy demands, like immediately halting fossil fuel subsidies and drastically reducing carbon emissions. Her message is clear: we know what needs to be done and we need to do it.

When crafting your own policy persuasive speech, it’s important to back up your arguments with solid evidence. Use statistics, expert testimony, and real-world examples to show why your proposed solution is feasible and necessary. Anticipate counterarguments and address them head-on. And most importantly, make a clear call to action. Ask yourself: what exactly do you want your audience to do to support your policy goals?

Value Persuasive Speech Examples

Value persuasive speeches aim to change people’s beliefs or attitudes about a particular issue. Rather than advocating for a specific policy, these speeches try to shift the audience’s underlying values and assumptions.

A classic example of a value persuasive speech is Mary McLeod Bethune’s “ What Does American Democracy Mean to Me? ” address. As an African American woman born into poverty, Bethune faced countless obstacles and injustices throughout her life. But in this speech, she reframes the narrative around American democracy, arguing that our nation’s highest ideals are worth fighting for, even if we haven’t yet lived up to them. By appealing to shared values like freedom, justice, and equality, Bethune inspires her audience to keep pushing for change.

The key to a successful value persuasive speech is tapping into your audience’s existing beliefs and values. Use vivid language and storytelling to paint a picture of the world you want to see. Make your case in moral and ethical terms, not just practical ones. And don’t be afraid to show some vulnerability. By sharing your own experiences and struggles, you can create an emotional connection with your listeners.

Persuasive Speech Examples About Social Issues

Social issues make for compelling persuasive speech topics because they touch on deeply held beliefs and affect people’s everyday lives. Whether you’re talking about racial justice, gender equality, or income inequality, these speeches require a deft touch and a willingness to engage with complex, often controversial ideas.

Talking About Mental Health

One powerful example of a persuasive speech about mental health is Kevin Breel’s “ Confessions of a Depressed Comic ” from TEDxKids@Ambleside. As a stand-up comedian, Breel knows how to get laughs, but he also knows the pain of living with depression. In this speech, he shares his own story of struggling with mental illness and calls on society to break the stigma around talking about mental health. By speaking vulnerably, Breel makes a compelling case for why we need to take depression seriously and support those who are struggling.

Addressing Physical Health

Another great example of a persuasive speech about health is Jamie Oliver’s TED Talk “ Teach Every Child About Food .” As a celebrity chef, Oliver has seen firsthand the impact of poor nutrition on people’s health. In this speech, he makes a passionate plea for better food education in schools, arguing that it’s a matter of life and death. With shocking statistics and personal anecdotes, Oliver paints a grim picture of the obesity epidemic and calls on parents, educators, and policymakers to take action.

Persuasive Speech Examples About the Environment

Environmental issues are some of the most pressing challenges we face as a society. From climate change to pollution to habitat destruction, the stakes couldn’t be higher. That’s why persuasive speeches about the environment are so important. By inspiring people to take action, they make a true difference.

One of the most famous environmental speeches of all time is Al Gore’s “An Inconvenient Truth” lecture, which was later turned into an Academy Award-winning documentary. In this speech, Gore lays out the scientific evidence for climate change and argues that we have a moral imperative to act. With compelling visuals and a sense of urgency, Gore makes a powerful case for why we need to reduce our carbon footprint and transition to renewable energy sources.

Another great example of an environmental persuasive speech is Severn Suzuki’s address to the UN Earth Summit in 1992. At just 12 years old, Suzuki delivered a heartfelt plea for action on behalf of her generation, arguing that adults were stealing children’s future by destroying the planet. Her speech went viral and helped galvanize the youth environmental movement. By speaking from the heart and calling out the hypocrisy of world leaders, Suzuki showed that you’re never too young to make a difference.

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FAQs on Persuasive Speech Examples

What are some examples of a persuasive speech.

Think climate change action, voting rights, or the importance of mental health awareness. They push for change.

What are 5 examples of persuasive essay?

Gun control laws, school uniforms debate, death penalty perspectives, animal testing ethics, and social media impacts make the list.

What’s an easy persuasive speech topic?

“Why recycling matters” is straightforward and impactful. It connects with everyday actions and broader environmental goals.

What is an example of a persuasive statement?

“Switching to renewable energy sources can significantly reduce our carbon footprint.” This urges action towards sustainability.

Persuasive speech examples show us how to inspire, motivate, and transform the way we communicate our ideas to the world. By studying these remarkable speeches, you’ve gained valuable insights into the art of persuasion and the techniques that make a speech truly unforgettable.

Remember, winning people over with your words takes more than just knowing the right things to say. It’s about practice, caring deeply, and tuning into the folks listening. Take the lessons you’ve learned from these examples and apply them to your own unique style and message. Pouring your soul into your speech can truly move an audience emotionally, altering their thinking for good.

Now your moment in the spotlight is here, so show off those persuasive speech skills. Go forth and create a speech that not only informs and entertains but also inspires and empowers your audience to take meaningful action. The world is waiting to hear your voice, so make it count!

  • Last Updated: June 21, 2024

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126 Good Informative Speech Topics – 2024

June 23, 2024

What is an informative speech? You may be asking this question if you find yourself needing to give one for a class or extracurricular. Unlike a persuasive speech , which is designed to convince an audience of something, or a debate , which can be polemic by nature, an informative speech is meant to educate its listeners on a topic, elucidate an unclear idea, or simply help an audience delve more deeply into a subject. In other words, while informative speeches can persuade or argue, they don’t have to. In this article, we’ll highlight a few tips on how to choose good informative speech topics, and then provide a list of 126 informative speech ideas to get you brainstorming for your next big speech!

How to Choose Informative Speech Topics

Your choice of informative speech topic will depend greatly upon the task at hand: is this speech for a class? A passion project ? A campus rally? A professional development conference? Recruiting for a particular major, club, or community service organization? A high school speech competition? Once you know the purpose and parameters of your speech, it will be easier to select an informative speech topic that is an appropriate subject and size. Additionally, it’s important to consider your audience, expertise, scope, research, and tone before you delve into your writing.

Knowing your target audience is key to creating reciprocity, or the necessary give and take between speaker and listener that creates communication and understanding. Speakers who know their audiences are better able to shape their speeches to be well-received. [i] Imagine, for example, you’re giving an informative speech on “Jane Austen’s narrators.” You must ask yourself: are you giving your speech to a panel of scholars, to educated adult non-experts, or to grade school-aged children? If your audience will be comprised of literature professors, your speech should provide fairly advanced and in-depth knowledge and should be filled with the latest developments in professional literary criticism. If your audience is made up of grade school-aged children, you’ll want to start with the basics, like who was Jane Austen? And what, exactly, is a narrator?

As you give your informative speech, you’ll want to think about not only your audience’s level of expertise in your speech topic, but also your own (and it’s okay if you’re a novice in the subject!). [ii] An informative speech often includes or takes into consideration a synthesis of preexisting scholarship in a field or information around a topic. While you don’t need to apprise your audience of an entire body of research before you begin delivering your speech, you do want to have a working knowledge of the preexisting conversation around your informative speech topic. [iii] This will inform the level of research you’ll need to perform before you begin writing your speech.

In terms of selecting research sources, it’s good to remember the three P’s: peer-reviewed , published , and prestigious . A peer-reviewed source is one that has been evaluated by a group of experts in the field of the writer. It has undergone the most stringent editing and fact-checking and, when first published, is the most up-to-date information in a field. A published source is one that has also usually undergone some editing before publication – though you’ll want to be wary of self-published sources and online publications (these usually don’t receive the same kind of scrutiny as printed texts).

Finally, it’s certainly okay to use online sources, but you want to make sure they are coming from a prestigious or at least well-known source like a national newspaper or even an established commercial website. A good tip for assessing a source’s quality is to check: does this source cite any outside resources in a works cited or in footnotes?

You want to be sure that you are able to cover a topic thoroughly, given the time and resources allotted. For example, if you have five minutes to give an informative speech to your psychology 101 classmates, you could choose a general topic like, “Why was Sigmund Freud important to psychology?” If you have an hour to give an informative speech at a professional psychology conference, you might provide a detailed account of Sigmund Freud’s most important contributions to a particular branch of modern psychology and explain its current significance to the field, including recent developments in research and clinical practice.

Finally, something crucial to consider is the emotional register of your speech. Is the subject matter something serious like an illness or climate change? Or is it a politically charged topic like immigration or gun control? Is it light, like “how to make pizza dough” or “the invention of the roller coaster?” Or is it merely intriguing or educating like, “personality typing and psychology,” “owning a poodle,” or “Ben Franklin’s top five aphorisms?” Gauging the emotional involvement of your audience will help you choose an appropriate informative speech topic for the project at hand and will ultimately let you craft a more effective speech.

The 126 informative speech ideas below run the gamut from broad to very specific and can all serve as starting points as you brainstorm what you’d like to give a speech on. Good luck!

Health & Medicine Informative Speech Topics

1) Ideas on curbing the spread of future global pandemics.

2) What is the endocrine system?

3) What is a physician’s assistant?

4) The importance of blood donation.

5) Disparities in healthcare between different demographic groups.

6) How did Marie Curie contribute to the medical field?

7) What is the role of nurses in primary care settings?

8) What subspecialties are there in women’s health?

9) What recent developments have been made in knee replacement surgery techniques?

Good Informative Speech Topics/Informative Speech Ideas (Continued)

10) What is Traditional Chinese Medicine?

11) Telehealth and patient outcomes in recent years.

12) How to MRI machines work?

13) Comparing healthcare systems in different countries.

14) The five most important cancer research innovations in the past five years.

15) What is a plague?

16) How does social media affect mental health?

17) What is the World Health Organization?

18) What are the differences between a midwife and an obstetrician?

STEM Informative Speech Topics

19) What are some important differences between commercial and government-sponsored space flight programs?

20) How do rollercoasters work?

21) The relationship between AI and defense.

22) How are robots used in surgeries?

23) How do you solve a quadratic equation?

24) Why are information systems an important part of modern marketing?

25) What recent innovations have been made in the field of machine learning algorithms?

26) How has cloud computing changed in the past five years?

27) What is the role of engineers in mining and extraction?

28) What is a black hole?

29) What is internal combustion?

30) How self-driving cars work.

31) What are some differences between aeronautical and aerospace engineers?

32) What is Euclidian geometry?

33) How is probability be used in sport management?

34) Why are we running out of helium?

35) What is the relationship between cybersecurity and national politics?

36) The most important uses of 3D printing?

Arts & Humanities Informative Speech Topics

37) What are the most likely interpretations of Hamlet’s “To be or not to be?” speech ?

38) What was the Dadaism movement?

39) Why is the Mona Lisa so popular?

40) The differences between highbrow, lowbrow, and commercial cultural production.

41) What are the major tenets of postmodernism?

42) The influences of Alfred Hitchcock on modern cinema.

43) What is the difference between “performance” and “performativity?”

44) What are the differences between an early novel and a romance?

45) Recent developments in literature and ecocriticism.

46) What is the debate on the Elgin Marbles?

47) In what ways was fashion an important element of the Belle Epoch era?

48) The top five most influential texts in speculative fiction.

49) What is pop art?

50) Who was Andy Warhol?

51) What is The Iliad ?

52) Postcolonial studies as an academic field.

53) The history of the Louvre museum.

54) Jane Austen’s narrators and free indirect discourse.

Psychology and Sociology Informative Speech Topics

55) What is the Enneagram and how is it used in therapeutic settings?

56) How did Pierre Bourdieu define “fields?”

57) What is the Panopticon?

58) What is intersectionality?

59) The role of psychologists in school settings.

60) How is behavior psychology related to consumerism and marketing?

61) What is gentrification?

62) The role of the pharmaceutical industry in psychiatric treatment.

63) Who was Sigmund Freud and why is he important?

64) What is the difference between clinical and research psychology?

65) What is the relationship between social media and mental health?

66) What is neuropsychology?

67) What is an ethnographic study?

68) How did Habermas define the public sphere?

69) What is multiple personality disorder?

70) What is are the “gaze” and the “mirror stage,” according to Lacan?

71) Describe the prisoner’s dilemma.

72) What is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?

Nature and Environment Informative Speech Topics

73) What are some pros and cons of wind farming?

74) Why are microbiomes important for health?

75) What is an axolotl?

76) Death Valley: the hottest place on Earth

77) What threats do spotted lanternflies pose?

78) What are the most significant climate change “points of no return?”

79) Water conservation strategies in the American West.

80) What is biodiversity?

81) How do dolphins communicate?

82) Why was Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring significant for the environmentalist movement?

83) How was the Santorini caldera created?

84) What are plate tectonics?

85) How and why tornadoes happen.

86) What is the El Niño phenomenon and why is it important?

87) Fungus and blue spruce disease in Northeast Ohio.

88) What measures are being taken to curb deforestation in the Amazon?

89) How is the Galapagos ecosystem preserved today?

90) Floridian ecosystems and the Red Tide.

Business, Marketing, Finance and Economy

91) The role of sports merchandising in U.S. women’s Olympic events.

92) Subprime mortgages and the housing market crash of 2008.

93) What are the eight best steps you can take to better your personal finances?

94) Which social media platforms are most lucrative for marketing to each current online generation?

95) What is inflation?

96) What is the relationship between politics and the unemployment rate?

97) What is market saturation?

98) How do we measure the GDP of emergent nations?

99) What developments to we expect to see in the industry competition between EVs and regular automobiles?

100) What is an index fund? What is a mutual fund?

101) Bond holdings late in retirement.

102) The role of social justice in branding.

103) How does search engine optimization work for marketing?

104) Is the influencer economy a bubble?

105) Describe the differences between a CFA and a CPA.

106) What developments have we seen in start-up economies in the past five years?

107) What is embezzlement?

108) What is the history of human resource departments?

History and Travel

109) The religious persuasions of each of Henry VIII’s wives .

110) How the aqueduct system worked in ancient Rome

111) What are the tallest buildings in the world?

112) What was the Black Death?

113) The Watergate Scandal.

114) In what ways was the printing press an important invention?

115) What is the Chernobyl site like today?

116) What was the relationship between Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla?

117) Why was the Great Wall of China built?

118) Who were medieval anchorites?

119) The political significance of whistle-stop train tours.

120) What was the significance of the Second Boer War?

121) The Tennis Court Oath .

122) What are the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World?

123) Witch hunting in 1600s New England.

124) What was the Space Race?

125) Why are the bodies of Pompeiians preserved?

126) What is Machu Picchu?

Good Informative Speech Topics – Works Cited

[i] Lloyd-Hughes, Sarah. How to Be Brilliant at Public Speaking: Any Audience, Any Situation . Pearson Educated Limited, Edinburgh 2011.

[ii] Downs, Douglas and Elizabeth Wardle. “What Can a Novice Contribute? Undergraduate Researchers in First-Year Composition,” Undergraduate Research in English Studies (2010) pp. 173-90).

[iii] Graff, Gerard, and Cathy Birkenstein. They Say / I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing . W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 2006.

Informative Speech Ideas – Additional Reading

  • 149 Capstone Project Ideas and Examples
  • 100 Best Political Science Research Topics
  • 64 Social Issues Topics 
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Jamie Smith

For the past decade, Jamie has taught writing and English literature at several universities, including Boston College, the University of Pittsburgh, and Carnegie Mellon University. She earned a Ph.D. in English from Carnegie Mellon, where she currently teaches courses and conducts research on composition, public writing, and British literature.

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Become a pro at giving a speech in 2024

Jun 22, 2024

Posted by: Regine Fe Arat

Giving a speech can be daunting, but it’s an incredible opportunity to inspire, persuade and make a lasting impact on your audience. 

Whether you're speaking at a conference, a wedding or in a classroom, the ability to deliver a powerful speech is a valuable skill that can open doors and create meaningful connections. 

From Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech to Steve Jobs' commencement address at Stanford University, we’ve seen many amazing speeches. History is full of speeches that have inspired generations and shaped the world. 

In this comprehensive guide, we'll walk you through the essential steps to crafting and delivering a memorable speech that will leave a lasting impression on your listeners.

Crafting an effective main message

At the heart of every great speech is a clear, compelling message. This main idea or theme is what you want your audience to take away from your speech. 

To craft an effective message, start by asking yourself what you want your audience to think, feel or do after hearing your words. 

Once you have a clear goal in mind, distill your message into a single, powerful statement that sums up your main point. 

Imagine you're giving a speech about the importance of volunteering. Your main message might be: "Giving our time and talents to others can create a more compassionate and connected world."

Connecting with your audience through body language

Your body language impacts how your audience perceives and engages with your speech.

It's important to use nonverbal cues that convey confidence, warmth and authenticity to create a strong connection with your listeners. 

Some key body language tips to keep in mind include:

  • Maintaining eye contact: Look directly at your audience members, making brief but meaningful eye contact throughout the room.
  • Using gestures : Emphasize key points and add visual interest to your speech by using natural, expressive gestures.
  • Smiling : A genuine smile can put your audience at ease and create a positive, welcoming atmosphere.
  • Standing tall : To project confidence and authority, maintain good posture with your shoulders back and your feet planted firmly on the ground.

Using natural adrenaline to boost confidence

It's normal to feel nervous before giving a speech, and you can use these feelings to boost your confidence and performance. 

The key is to reframe your nerves as excitement and use that energy to fuel your passion and enthusiasm for your topic. 

Some techniques for channeling your adrenaline in a positive way include:

Power posing

Before your speech, take a few minutes to stand in a confident, big stance (such as the Superman pose) to increase your sense of power and self-assurance.

Positive self-talk

Use affirmative statements to remind yourself of your strengths and abilities, such as "I am well-prepared and ready to share my message."

Visualizing success

Picture yourself delivering your speech with clarity, confidence and impact, with your audience responding positively to your words.

Preparing for a successful speech

Effective speech writing involves a systematic process of researching, organizing and refining your content:

Choose and cite authoritative sources

First, you need to research your topic. Look for compelling facts, statistics and examples to illustrate your key points and make your message more memorable.

To give your speech credibility and impact, choose sources that support your key points. Look for references that are:

  • Reputable : Look for information from well-known, respected organizations, institutions or people in your field.
  • Current : Use the most up-to-date information available to ensure accurate content.
  • Relevant : Select sources that directly support your main points and contribute to your overall message.

When citing your sources in your speech, credit the original authors or creators properly. This demonstrates your commitment to academic integrity and helps your audience trust the information you're presenting. 

Some common ways to cite sources in a speech include:

  • Verbal attribution : Mention the author or organization name when referencing their work, such as "According to a recent study by Harvard University..."
  • Slides or handouts : If you're using visual aids, include a list of references or sources for your audience to refer to later.

Draft a compelling speech summary

Next, summarize your speech's main point or argument. This is usually best near the end of your introduction as a roadmap for the rest of your speech. 

To craft the best summary, consider the following tips:

  • Be specific: Avoid broad statements — focus on a clear, specific claim or argument.
  • Be arguable: Present a perspective or position with evidence and reasoning.
  • Be concise: Aim for a single sentence that captures your main point clearly and directly.

For example, if you're giving a speech on the benefits of meditation, your summary might be: "Regular meditation practice can reduce stress, improve focus and promote overall well-being."

Outline your speech

Once you have a solid foundation of information and your main argument, begin outlining your speech. 

Break your content down into logical sections, such as an introduction, main body and conclusion. Within each section, organize your points to flow naturally and build toward your message.

As you write your speech, focus on clear, concise language. It should be easy for your audience to understand and follow. Use short sentences, active voice and concrete examples to make your points more engaging and memorable. 

Remember to also include transitions between sections to help your audience follow your train of thought and see the connections between your ideas.

If the audience needs a call to action, include it in the conclusion. 

Tighten up sentence structure and flow

The way you structure your sentences and paragraphs can impact how your audience understands and engages with your speech.

To create a clear and compelling flow, consider the following tips:

  • Vary your sentence lengths: Alternate between short, punchy sentences and longer ones to create a dynamic and engaging rhythm.
  • Use parallel structure: When listing ideas or examples, use the same grammatical structure for each item to create a sense of balance.
  • Use transitions: Phrases like "however," "in addition" and "as a result" show the connections between your ideas and help your audience follow your train of thought.

11 tips for effective speech delivery

Practice your microphone technique.

If you're using a microphone during your speech, take some time to practice with it beforehand. 

Get a feel for the optimal distance and angle to hold the microphone, and experiment with your volume and tone to ensure everyone can hear you.

Remember, the microphone is there to project your voice, so you don’t need to yell into it. 

Speak directly into the microphone. Avoid turning your head away while speaking as this can reduce the volume of your voice.

Timing is important

One of the most important things to remember when delivering a speech is to be concise. 

Aim to keep your speech within the allotted time frame and avoid going off on tangents or including unnecessary details. 

A good rule of thumb is around one minute of speaking time for each main point. A concise speech ensures you hold your audience's attention and drive home your key messages.

Consider what your audience wants to hear

When crafting and delivering your speech, keep your audience's needs and interests in mind. 

Research your audience beforehand, and tailor your content and delivery style to their specific needs and preferences. 

For example, if you're speaking to a group of experts in your field, you may want to use more technical language and discuss your topic in more detail. 

However, a general audience will prefer more accessible language and less jargon. Focus on the broader essence of your message and keep it straightforward.

Pick a theme and stick to it

It's important to choose a clear theme and stick to it throughout a speech to create a cohesive and memorable presentation . 

Avoid trying to cover too many different topics or ideas. A confusing, jumbled speech can quickly turn an audience off. 

Instead, focus on developing a single, powerful theme that ties your main points together and reinforces your overall message. 

For example, if you're giving a speech on the importance of sustainability, you might choose a theme like "Small changes, big impact.” You could use examples and anecdotes that illustrate how individual actions can contribute to a more sustainable future.

Speak slowly

When delivering your speech, it's important to speak at a pace that allows your audience to follow along and absorb your message.

Many speakers rush through their material when they're nervous, making it difficult for their audience to keep up. 

To avoid this, practice speaking at a slower, more deliberate pace. Use pauses strategically to emphasize key points or give your audience time to process what you've said. 

If you find yourself speeding up, take a deep breath and consciously slow down your delivery.

Tell a couple of jokes

Incorporating humor into your speech can be a great way to engage your audience and make your message more memorable. 

A well-placed joke or funny anecdote can break the ice, lighten the mood and create a more relaxed and receptive atmosphere. 

However, it's important to use humor carefully and ensure your jokes are appropriate and relevant to your topic. Avoid offensive or insensitive humor, and don't rely too heavily on jokes at the expense of your core message.

If telling jokes doesn’t come naturally, avoid them entirely or practice them until you sound like a seasoned comedian. 

Don't be afraid to repeat yourself if you need to

Repetition is a powerful tool in speech-making, as it reinforces your key points and makes them more memorable. 

A technique known as "the rule of three" suggests that people are more likely to remember information in groups of three. 

So don't be afraid to repeat your primary message or points throughout your speech with slightly different language or examples each time. 

Only use the visual aids you need

Visual aids, such as slides, charts or props, can reinforce your message and make your speech more engaging. 

However, it's important to only include those that are truly necessary to support your points. 

Avoid cluttering your presentation with too many slides or images, as this can detract from your overall message. 

Instead, choose a few key visuals that are clear, relevant and easy to understand. Use them strategically throughout your speech to enhance your words.

Ask for feedback

One of the best ways to improve your speech delivery is to seek feedback from others.

Consider joining a public speaking group, course or Toastmasters club to practice your skills in a supportive environment. 

You can also ask friends, colleagues or mentors to listen to your speech and provide feedback on your content, delivery and overall impact. 

Another challenge of public speaking is being aware of your body language. When certain movements feel normal, you might not realize it’s distracting for those watching. 

Ask a friend or colleague to watch you practice your speech and provide feedback on any awkward mannerisms.

They may notice that you fidget with your hands, sway back and forth or use filler words like "um" or "like" frequently. 

Becoming aware of these habits means you can work to minimize them and project a more confident, polished presence on stage.

Remember that feedback is a gift, and constructive criticism can help you grow as a speaker.

Practice regularly

The key to becoming a confident and effective public speaker is regular practice. The more you practice your speech, the more comfortable and natural you'll feel when delivering it.

Dedicate time each week to work on your public speaking skills, whether you practice a specific speech or work on general techniques like vocal projection, gestures or eye contact.

Consider recording yourself speaking and watch the video to identify areas for improvement. You can also practice your speech in front of a mirror or with a small group of friends to build your confidence.

Look around the room

When delivering your speech, it's important to make eye contact with your audience to create a sense of connection and engagement. 

However, many speakers make the mistake of focusing on just one or two people throughout their entire speech. 

To avoid this, make a conscious effort to look around the room and make eye contact with people in different sections of the audience. 

This will help you connect with a wider range of people and make your speech feel more inclusive and engaging. 

Don’t let your gaze wander aimlessly or linger too long on anyone, as this can be distracting or uncomfortable for your audience.

Overcoming fear and nervousness

One of the most effective ways to calm your nerves before and during a speech is to practice deep breathing techniques. 

Deep breathing slows down your heart rate, relaxes your muscles and calms your mind, which can help you feel more centered and focused. 

To practice deep breathing:

  • find a quiet place where you can sit or stand comfortably,
  • place one hand on your chest and the other on your belly, 
  • take a slow, deep breath in through your nose, 
  • allow your belly to expand as you inhale,
  • hold the breath for a moment, then exhale slowly through your mouth, 
  • feel your belly fall as you release the air,
  • repeat this process for several minutes and
  • focus on the sensation of the breath moving in and out of your body.

How to effectively handle impromptu speeches

Impromptu speeches can be particularly nerve-wracking, as they require you to think on your feet and organize your thoughts quickly. 

To handle an impromptu speech effectively, try the following tips:

Take a moment to collect your thoughts

Before you start speaking, take a deep breath and give yourself a few seconds to gather your thoughts and choose a main point or theme to focus on.

Use a simple structure

Organize your speech into a basic structure, such as an introduction, three main points and a conclusion. This will help you stay focused and avoid rambling or getting off track.

Speak from experience

Draw on your experiences, knowledge and opinions to provide examples and anecdotes that support your main points. This will help you speak more authentically and confidently.

Embrace the unexpected

Remember that impromptu speeches are an opportunity to showcase your ability to think on your feet and adapt to new situations. Embrace the challenge and try to have fun with it.

Preparing for Q&A sessions and panel discussions

Many speeches are followed by a Q&A session or panel discussion, which can be an opportunity to engage with your audience and provide additional insights and perspectives on your topic. To prepare for these sessions, consider the following tips:

Anticipate common questions

Before your speech, brainstorm a list of questions that your audience may ask, and practice your responses. This will help you feel more prepared and confident when fielding questions.

Be concise and direct

When answering questions, aim to be concise and to the point, while still providing enough context and detail to fully address the question.

Defer to other experts

If you're part of a panel discussion, don't feel like you need to answer every question or dominate the conversation. Defer to other panelists when appropriate and build on their ideas to create a more dynamic and engaging discussion.

Stay positive and professional

Even if you receive a challenging or hostile question, try to remain positive and professional in your response. Avoid getting defensive or argumentative. Instead, focus on providing a thoughtful and measured perspective.

Examples of persuasive speeches

To help illustrate the techniques and strategies we've covered in this guide, let's take a look at a few examples of persuasive speeches that have made a lasting impact:

“The Power of Vulnerability" by Brené Brown

This popular TED Talk by researcher Brené Brown uses humor, personal stories and scientific data to argue that vulnerability is a strength, not a weakness and that it's essential for building authentic connections and living a meaningful life.

"I Have a Dream" by Martin Luther King Jr.

This iconic speech, delivered during the 1963 March on Washington, is a powerful example of using rhetorical devices. King mastered the use of repetition, metaphors and emotional appeal to convey a message of hope and unity.

"The Danger of a Single Story" by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

In this TED Talk, novelist Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie uses personal anecdotes and storytelling to illustrate the importance of seeking out diverse perspectives and challenging stereotypes.

“Ain’t I A Woman?” by Sojourner Truth

Sojourner Truth was born into slavery in 1797 and escaped from her master in 1827. She’s a prime example of an early feminist and anti-slavery speaker. In her famous speech, ”Ain’t I A Woman?” she used repetition and thought-provoking questions to highlight the poor treatment of Black women. 

"The Price of Shame" by Monica Lewinsky

In this powerful TED Talk, Monica Lewinsky draws on her own experiences with public shaming and cyberbullying to argue for a more compassionate and empathetic online culture.

The last card

Giving a speech can be challenging but rewarding. It allows you to share your ideas, inspire others and make a positive impact on the world. 

Follow the strategies and techniques outlined in this guide to become a more confident, effective and persuasive speaker. 

Remember to start by crafting a clear and compelling main message, and use body language, vocal techniques and storytelling to engage and connect with your audience. 

Practice regularly, seek feedback from others, and don't be afraid to embrace your natural nervousness and use it to your advantage.

How do I start giving a speech?

To start giving a speech, try:

  • opening with a fun or hard-hitting fact,
  • making a joke,
  • sharing an anecdote,
  • asking the audience a question,
  • quoting someone famous and
  • setting the scene — if you’re solving a problem, tell a relatable, relevant story

What are the steps of preparing for a speech?

  • Choose a topic you're passionate about that will resonate with your audience.
  • Research your topic thoroughly and organize your ideas into a clear and logical structure.
  • Craft an attention-grabbing opening to hook your audience, like a joke or hard-hitting fact.
  • Practice your speech, focusing on your delivery, body language and vocal techniques.
  • Seek feedback from others and continue refining your speech until you feel confident and prepared.

What are the 4 stages of giving a speech?

The four stages of giving a speech are:

  • Preparation: Research your topic, organize ideas and craft your speech outline and content.
  • Practice: Rehearse your speech, focusing on your delivery, body language and visual aids.
  • Delivery: Give your speech to your audience, using the techniques and strategies you've practiced to engage and persuade them.
  • Reflection: After your speech, reflect on what went well and what you could improve. Seek feedback from your audience or a mentor, and use that feedback to continue refining your skills.

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how can i write a speech

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how can i write a speech

How to Write a Speech: Follow My Simple 6-Step Formula​

Ed Darling

Let me show you how to write a speech in the easiest way possible.​

How? By following a simple frame-work that’s powerful and versatile.

Whether you have a work presentation, keynote talk, or best man’s speech — by the end of this article, you’ll know exactly how to write a speech, and in what order.

I’m Ed, a public speaking coach and co-founder of Project Charisma . I help professionals, leaders and business owners to speak in public, and this is the #1 speech framework that I share with all of my clients.

I’ll walk you through the process of how to write a speech step-by-step , explaining each section as we go. I’ll also give you some examples of how this would look in different types of speech.

The first step is something 99% of people miss.

How to write a speech — contents:

Step 1: The Golden Thread Step 2: The Hook Step 3: The Intro Step 4: The Body Step 5: The Conclusion Step 6: The CTA/CTT Summary

Step 1. The Golden Thread

The first lesson in how to write a speech, is setting a clear objective from the get-go — so that what you write doesn’t end up being vague or convoluted.

Afterall, If you don’t know what your speech is about, neither will your audience.

To avoid this, we’re going to begin by defining our “Golden Thread”.

This is the key idea, insight or message that you want to get across. Like a thread, it will run throughout your speech, linking each section together in a way that’s clear and coherent.

To help you figure out your Golden Thread, try answering these two questions:

  • If you had to summarise your speech into a single sentence, what would that be?
  • If your audience could leave remembering only one thing, what would that be?

Speech examples — Golden Thread:

A work presentation: “Customer referrals can be our our super-power”

A motivational speech: “Don’t let circumstances define you”

For a wedding/event speech: “Enjoy the journey together”

Tip: Your Golden Thread isn’t something you share with the audience. You don’t start your speech by saying it out loud. Rather, it’s something we define in the preparation phase to clarify your own thoughts and ensure everything that comes next makes sense.

That said, your Golden Thread may double-up as the perfect speech title, or memorable catch-phrase. In which case it’s fine to use it within your speech too, as a way to drive-home the overall message.

Think of MLKs famous “I have a dream” speech . The Golden Thread was his dream of a future with equality, a core idea which ran throughout the speech. But the exact phrase “I have a dream” was also spoken and repeated for effect.

Step 2. The Hook

Now we get into the nitty-gritty of how to write a speech.

The Hook is the first thing you will actually say to the audience — usually within the first 10–30 seconds of your speech.

Most people start a speech by introducing themselves and their topic:

“Hello everyone, I’m John from accounting, today I’ll be talking about our quarterly figures” .

It’s predictable, it’s unimaginative, it’s starting with a yawn instead of a bang. Instead, we’re going to open the speech with a hook that gets people sitting up and listening.

A hook can be anything that captures attention, including a:

  • Relevant quote
  • Interesting statistic
  • Intriguing question
  • Funny anecdote
  • Powerful statement

Watch how Apollo Robbins opens his TED talk with a question-hook to engage the audience.

Whichever type of hook you use, it needs to be short, punchy and ideally something that builds intrigue in your audience’s mind. Depending on the type of speech, your hook might be humorous, dramatic, serious or thoughtful.

For an in-depth guide on how to write a speech with a great hook, I highly recommend our article on 9 Killer Speech Openers.

Hook examples:

A work presentation: “What if I told you we could increase revenue by 35%, without any additional ad-spend?”

A motivational speech: “At the age of 30, my life was turned upside down — I was jobless, directionless, and depressed”

For a wedding/event speech: “Love is a fire. But whether it is going to warm your hearth or burn down your house, you can never tell — so said Joan Crawford”

Tip: Don’t rush into things. Hooks work infinitely better when you pause just before speaking, and again just after.

Step 3: The Intro

We’ve captured attention and have the whole room interested. The next step is to formally introduce ourselves, our speech, and what the audience can expect to hear.

Depending on the situation, you can use your introduction as an opportunity to build credibility with your audience. If they don’t know you, it’s worth explaining who you are, and why you’re qualified to be speaking on this topic.

The more credibility you build early on, the more engagement you’ll have throughout the speech. So consider mentioning expertise, credentials and relevant background.

In other situations where people already know you, there may be less need for this credibility-building. In which case, keep it short and sweet.

Intro examples:

A work presentation: “Good morning everyone, I’m Jenny from the Marketing department. For the past few months I’ve been tracking our referrals with a keen-eye. Today, I want to show you the numbers, and explain my plan double our referrals in the next 6 months”

A motivational speech: “Ladies and gentlemen, at the age of 40 I’m a speaker, an author and a teacher — but my life could have turned out very differently. Today, I want to share with you my story of overcoming adversity.”

For a wedding/event speech: “Good afternoon everyone, I’m Luke the Best Man. I can’t promise anything quite as poetic as that quote, but I’d like to say a few words for the Bride and Groom”.

Tip: In certain situations, your introduction can also be a time to give thanks — to the event organisers, hosts, audience, etc. But always keep this brief, and keep focused on your message.

Step 4. The Body

The body of the speech is where you share your main stories, ideas or points. The risk for many speakers here is that they start meandering.

One point leads to another, which segues into a story, then a tangents off to something else, and before we know it, everyone’s confused — definitely not how to write a speech.

Remember, clarity is key.

For this reason, wherever possible you should aim to split the body of your speech into three distinct sections.

Why three? Because humans tend to process information more effectively when it comes in triads . Making it easier for you to remember, and easier for your audience to follow.

The most obvious example of this is the classic beginning, middle and end structure in storytelling .

You can also use past, present and future as a way to take people on a journey from “where we used to be, what happens now, and what the vision is going forwards”.

Or even more simple, break things up into:

  • Three stories
  • Three challenges
  • Three case-studies
  • Three future goals

Of course, It’s not always possible to structure speeches into three sections. Sometimes there’s just more information that you need to cover — such as with a technical presentation or sales pitch.

In this case, I recommend thinking in terms of chapters, and aiming for a maximum of 5–7. Ensure that each “chapter” or section is clearly introduced and explained, before moving on to the next. The more content you cover, the greater the need for clarity.

Body examples:

A work presentation: “We’ve discovered that referrals happen when we get three things right: building the relationship, delighting the customer, and making the ask — let’s look at each of these stages.

A motivational speech: “I don’t believe our past has to dictate our future, but in order to tell my story, let me take you back to the very beginning.”

For a wedding/event speech: “Of all the most embarrassing, undignified, and downright outrageous stories I could think of involving the Groom, I’ve whittled it down to three, which I think sum up why this marriage is destined for a long and happy future. It starts back in high-school…”

Tip: I mention “chapters’’ because when reading a book, there’s a moment to reflect after each chapter as we turn the page. In the same way, when speaking, make sure to give your audience a moment to process what you’ve just said at the end of each section, before moving on to your next point.

Step 5: The Conclusion

Now it’s time to bring everything together, guiding your audience to the key conclusions you want them to take away.

Depending on your speech, this could be an idea, an insight, a moral, or a message. But whatever it is, now is your time to say it in a clear and compelling way.

Watch David Eagleman use a thought-provoking metaphor and rhetorical question to wrap up his TED talk on senses.

This final conclusion should always link back to your Golden Thread, making sense of everything that’s come before it.

Answer the following questions as prompts (you could even say one of these out-loud to lead into your conclusion)

  • What is the message I want to leave you with?
  • What have we learned from all this?
  • What is the key take-away?

Conclusion examples:

A work presentation: “So what have we learned? When we get each of these steps right, our customers are eager to give us referrals, and those referrals usually result in more happy clients.”

A motivational speech: “My journey has had many ups and downs, but if there’s one lesson I’ve learned — it’s that our circumstances don’t dictate our direction, that we can come back from failure, and find a way to win”

For a wedding/event speech: “So what can I say about the Bride and Groom? They’re clearly made for each other and if history is anything to go by, their future will be full of many more stories and adventures.”

Tip: never use your conclusion to apologise for yourself, explain a whole new idea, or be overly thankful to everyone for watching. Keep it professional, and keep it focused on hammering-home the main idea of the speech.

Step 6: The CTA/CTT

You’ve concluded your message and summarised your main points. At this point, most people think the speech is done.

Not so fast — there’s one final key step we need to take, the Call to Action.

If you’ve followed the steps so far on how to write a speech, your audience should have been listening, learning, and hopefully now feel inspired by your words.

We’ve built up the potential for some kind of action , and now all that’s left is to direct that energy into a clear “next step” they can take.

Imagine your audience are thinking “what should I do with this information”?

Your CTA is the direct answer to that question.

It should be clear, simple and ideally — something they can act on quickly. For instance, you may request the audience to download an app you’ve discussed, connect with you online, sign up for a service, or come and speak with you afterwards.

Not every speech suits a CTA however, which is where the CTT comes in.

This is a great variation I picked up from Justin Welsh which stands for “Call to Thought”. It’s a more nuanced action — typically asking people to reflect on an idea, consider a specific issue, or think differently about something.

CTA/CTT examples:

A work presentation (CTA): “As an immediate next step to get us started, I’d like everyone to reach out to your current clients this week, and ask them to refer one new customer. We’ll be tracking the results, and rewarding the winning referral rain-maker!”

A motivational speech (CTC): “So ask yourself, where are you allowing circumstances to hold you back, and how could your life change if you took a new direction?”

For a wedding/event speech (CTA): “With that said, I’d like to raise a toast to the Bride and Groom. Now enjoy the day, and get yourself a drink at the bar!”

Tip: Once you’ve stated your CTA/CTT, the only thing left to do is thank people and finish. Don’t be tempted to back-track and start repeating any of your points. It’s time to get off stage!

How to write a speech using this framework.

Without a framework to guide you, it’s easy to get lost in analysis-paralysis, or worse, create a speech which gets everyone ELSE lost.

Now that you’re armed with this foolproof formula and know exactly how to write a speech, you can approach the situation with confidence.

  • Define your Golden Thread
  • Hook your audience
  • Introduce yourself
  • Section your body in three
  • Conclude your main points
  • Leave them with a CTA/CTT

Even as an inexperienced speaker, by following this formula you’ll come across with the clarity and credibility of a professional.

Remember, public speaking is simply a skillset that requires practice. The more you use this speech framework, watch other speakers in action, and gain practical experience, the more your communication skills will naturally develop.

I hope this frame-work makes the process of writing your next speech a breeze.

If you need any further help with how to write a speech, get in touch!

Ed Darling Head coach and co-founder

Ed Darling

Written by Ed Darling

Public Speaker, Communication Coach, co-founder of Project Charisma.

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Speech Generator

Equip yourself with's speech generator, for crafting persuasive, engaging speeches tailored to your specific needs..


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Efficient Utilization of HIX.AI's Speech Generator: Key Considerations

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What Jamaal Bowman’s Loss Means for the Left

Mr. Bowman’s win in 2020 seemed to herald an ascendant progressive movement. In 2024, the center is regaining power.

Jamaal Bowman raises his right hand in the air as he addresses supporters from the stage during his concession speech on Tuesday.

By Jesse McKinley and Nicholas Fandos

Representative Jamaal Bowman’s upset win in a 2020 Democratic primary in the New York suburbs was heralded by the left as proof of its electoral ascent in American politics.

Four years later, Mr. Bowman’s decisive loss on Tuesday will soon brand him with a more ignominious distinction: the first member of the House’s left-leaning “Squad” to be ousted from office.

The congressman was weighed down by a unique collection of baggage, including a guilty plea to a misdemeanor for pulling a House fire alarm last year. And he faced record-shattering spending by political groups furious over his criticism of Israel.

But his defeat in one of the nation’s most closely watched primaries drove home an unmistakable reality: Even at a moment when the war in Gaza has re-energized progressive activism, many of the left’s candidates are no longer gaining ground in major races, and in some cases they have started losing it.

In party primaries and special elections from Oregon to New Jersey , moderates seemed to be regaining their footing, often by explicitly positioning themselves to the right of their Democratic opponents on immigration, foreign policy and public safety. President Biden has also tacked rightward on key issues like immigration.

And in Missouri, another member of the “Squad,” Representative Cori Bush, is in danger of losing an August primary, where many of the same forces that helped defeat Mr. Bowman are already at play.

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Google Gemini: Everything you need to know about the new generative AI platform

illustration featuring Google's Bard logo

Google’s trying to make waves with Gemini, its flagship suite of generative AI models, apps and services.

So what’s Google Gemini, exactly? How can you use it? And how does Gemini stack up to the competition ?

To make it easier to keep up with the latest Gemini developments, we’ve put together this handy guide, which we’ll keep updated as new Gemini models, features and news about Google’s plans for Gemini are released.

What is Gemini?

Gemini is Google’s long-promised , next-gen generative AI model family, developed by Google’s AI research labs DeepMind and Google Research. It comes in four flavors:

  • Gemini Ultra , the most performant Gemini model.
  • Gemini Pro , a lightweight alternative to Ultra.
  • Gemini Flash , a speedier, “distilled” version of Pro.
  • Gemini Nano , two small models — Nano-1 and the more capable Nano-2 — meant to run offline on mobile devices.

All Gemini models were trained to be natively multimodal — in other words, able to work with and analyze more than just text. Google says that they were pre-trained and fine-tuned on a variety of public, proprietary and licensed audio, images and videos, a large set of codebases and text in different languages.

This sets Gemini apart from models such as Google’s own LaMDA , which was trained exclusively on text data. LaMDA can’t understand or generate anything beyond text (e.g., essays, email drafts), but that isn’t necessarily the case with Gemini models.

We’ll note here that the ethics and legality of training models on public data, in some cases without the data owners’ knowledge or consent, are murky indeed. Google has an AI indemnification policy to shield certain Google Cloud customers from lawsuits should they face them, but this policy contains carve-outs. Proceed with caution, particularly if you’re intending on using Gemini commercially.

What’s the difference between the Gemini apps and Gemini models?

Google, proving once again that it lacks a knack for branding , didn’t make it clear from the outset that Gemini is separate and distinct from the Gemini apps on the web and mobile ( formerly Bard ).

The Gemini apps are clients that connect to various Gemini models — Gemini Ultra (with Gemini Advanced, see below) and Gemini Pro so far — and layer chatbot-like interfaces on top. Think of them as front ends for Google’s generative AI, analogous to OpenAI’s ChatGPT and Anthropic’s Claude family of apps .

Google Gemini mobile app

Gemini on the web lives here . On Android, the Gemini app replaces the existing Google Assistant app. And on iOS, the Google and Google Search apps serve as that platform’s Gemini clients.

Gemini apps can accept images as well as voice commands and text — including files like PDFs and soon videos, either uploaded or imported from Google Drive — and generate images. As you’d expect, conversations with Gemini apps on mobile carry over to Gemini on the web and vice versa if you’re signed in to the same Google Account in both places.

Gemini in Gmail, Docs, Chrome, dev tools and more

The Gemini apps aren’t the only means of recruiting Gemini models’ assistance with tasks. Slowly but surely, Gemini-imbued features are making their way into staple Google apps and services like Gmail and Google Docs.

To take advantage of most of these, you’ll need the Google One AI Premium Plan. Technically a part of  Google One , the AI Premium Plan costs $20 and provides access to Gemini in Google Workspace apps like Docs, Slides, Sheets and Meet. It also enables what Google calls Gemini Advanced, which brings Gemini Ultra to the Gemini apps plus support for analyzing and answering questions about uploaded files.

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Gemini Advanced users get extras here and there, also, like trip planning in Google Search, which creates custom travel itineraries from prompts. Taking into account things like flight times (from emails in a user’s Gmail inbox), meal preferences and information about local attractions (from Google Search and Maps data), as well as the distances between those attractions, Gemini will generate an itinerary that updates automatically to reflect any changes. 

In Gmail, Gemini lives in a side panel that can write emails and summarize message threads. You’ll find the same panel in Docs, where it helps you write and refine your content and brainstorm new ideas. Gemini in Slides generates slides and custom images. And Gemini in Google Sheets tracks and organizes data, creating tables and formulas.

Gemini’s reach extends to Drive, as well, where it can summarize files and give quick facts about a project. In Meet, meanwhile, Gemini translates captions into additional languages.

Gemini in Gmail

Gemini recently came to Google’s Chrome browser in the form of an AI writing tool. You can use it to write something completely new or rewrite existing text; Google says it’ll take into account the webpage you’re on to make recommendations.

Elsewhere, you’ll find hints of Gemini in Google’s database products , cloud security tools , app development platforms (including Firebase and Project IDX ), not to mention apps like Google TV (where Gemini generates descriptions for movies and TV shows), Google Photos (where it handles natural language search queries) and the NotebookLM note-taking assistant .

Code Assist (formerly  Duet AI for Developers ), Google’s suite of AI-powered assistance tools for code completion and generation, is offloading heavy computational lifting to Gemini. So are Google’s security products underpinned by Gemini , like Gemini in Threat Intelligence, which can analyze large portions of potentially malicious code and let users perform natural language searches for ongoing threats or indicators of compromise.

Gemini Gems custom chatbots

Announced at Google I/O 2024, Gemini Advanced users will be able to create Gems , custom chatbots powered by Gemini models, in the future. Gems can be generated from natural language descriptions — for example, “You’re my running coach. Give me a daily running plan” — and shared with others or kept private.

Eventually, Gems will be able to tap an expanded set of integrations with Google services, including Google Calendar, Tasks, Keep and YouTube Music, to complete various tasks.

Gemini Live in-depth voice chats

A new experience called Gemini Live , exclusive to Gemini Advanced subscribers, will arrive soon on the Gemini apps on mobile, letting users have “in-depth” voice chats with Gemini.

With Gemini Live enabled, users will be able to interrupt Gemini while the chatbot’s speaking to ask clarifying questions, and it’ll adapt to their speech patterns in real time. And Gemini will be able to see and respond to users’ surroundings, either via photos or video captured by their smartphones’ cameras.

Live is also designed to serve as a virtual coach of sorts, helping users rehearse for events, brainstorm ideas and so on. For instance, Live can suggest which skills to highlight in an upcoming job or internship interview, and it can give public speaking advice.

What can the Gemini models do?

Because Gemini models are multimodal, they can perform a range of multimodal tasks, from transcribing speech to captioning images and videos in real time. Many of these capabilities have reached the product stage (as alluded to in the previous section), and Google is promising much more in the not-too-distant future.

Of course, it’s a bit hard to take the company at its word.

Google seriously underdelivered with the original Bard launch. More recently, it ruffled feathers with a video purporting to show Gemini’s capabilities that was more or less aspirational, not live, and with an image generation feature that turned out to be offensively inaccurate .

Also, Google offers no fix for some of the underlying problems with generative AI tech today, like its encoded biases and tendency to make things up (i.e. hallucinate ). Neither do its rivals, but it’s something to keep in mind when considering using or paying for Gemini.

Google’s best Gemini demo was faked

Assuming for the purposes of this article that Google is being truthful with its recent claims, here’s what the different tiers of Gemini can do now and what they’ll be able to do once they reach their full potential:

What you can do with Gemini Ultra

Google says that Gemini Ultra — thanks to its multimodality — can be used to help with things like physics homework, solving problems step-by-step on a worksheet and pointing out possible mistakes in already filled-in answers.

Ultra can also be applied to tasks such as identifying scientific papers relevant to a problem, Google says. The model could extract information from several papers, for instance, and update a chart from one by generating the formulas necessary to re-create the chart with more timely data.

Gemini Ultra technically supports image generation. But that capability hasn’t made its way into the productized version of the model yet — perhaps because the mechanism is more complex than how apps such as ChatGPT generate images. Rather than feed prompts to an image generator (like DALL-E 3 , in ChatGPT’s case), Gemini outputs images “natively,” without an intermediary step.

Ultra is available as an API through Vertex AI, Google’s fully managed AI dev platform, and AI Studio, Google’s web-based tool for app and platform developers. It also powers Google’s Gemini apps, but not for free. Once again, access to Ultra through any Gemini app requires subscribing to the AI Premium Plan.

Gemini Pro’s capabilities

Google says that Gemini Pro is an improvement over LaMDA in its reasoning, planning and understanding capabilities. The latest version, Gemini 1.5 Pro , exceeds even Ultra’s performance in some areas, Google claims.

Gemini 1.5 Pro is improved in a number of areas compared with its predecessor, Gemini 1.0 Pro, perhaps most obviously in the amount of data that it can process. Gemini 1.5 Pro can take in up to 1.4 million words, two hours of video or 22 hours of audio, and reason across or answer questions about all that data.

1.5 Pro became generally available on Vertex AI and AI Studio in June alongside a feature called code execution, which aims to reduce bugs in code that the model generates by iteratively refining that code over several steps. (Code execution also supports Gemini Flash.)

Within Vertex AI, developers can customize Gemini Pro to specific contexts and use cases via a fine-tuning or “grounding” process. For example, Pro (along with other Gemini models) can be instructed to use data from third-party providers like Moody’s, Thomson Reuters, ZoomInfo and MSCI, or source information from corporate data sets or Google Search instead of its wider knowledge bank. Gemini Pro can also be connected to external, third-party APIs to perform particular actions, like automating a workflow.

Google brings Gemini Pro to Vertex AI

AI Studio offers templates for creating structured chat prompts with Pro. Developers can control the model’s creative range and provide examples to give tone and style instructions — and also tune Pro’s safety settings.

Vertex AI Agent Builder lets people build Gemini-powered “agents” within Vertex AI. For example, a company could create an agent that analyzes previous marketing campaigns to understand a brand style, and then apply that knowledge to help generate new ideas consistent with the style. 

Gemini Flash is for less demanding work

For less demanding applications, there’s Gemini Flash. The newest version is 1.5 Flash.

An offshoot of Gemini Pro that’s small and efficient, built for narrow, high-frequency generative AI workloads, Flash is multimodal like Gemini Pro, meaning it can analyze audio, video and images as well as text (but only generate text).

Flash is particularly well-suited for tasks such as summarization, chat apps, image and video captioning and data extraction from long documents and tables, Google says. It’ll be generally available via Vertex AI and AI Studio by mid-July.

Devs using Flash and Pro can optionally leverage context caching, which lets them store large amounts of information (say, a knowledge base or database of research papers) in a cache that Gemini models can quickly and relatively cheaply access. Context caching is an additional fee on top of other Gemini model usage fees, however.

Gemini Nano can run on your phone

Gemini Nano is a much smaller version of the Gemini Pro and Ultra models, and it’s efficient enough to run directly on (some) phones instead of sending the task to a server somewhere. So far, Nano powers a couple of features on the Pixel 8 Pro, Pixel 8 and Samsung Galaxy S24 , including Summarize in Recorder and Smart Reply in Gboard.

The Recorder app, which lets users push a button to record and transcribe audio, includes a Gemini-powered summary of recorded conversations, interviews, presentations and other audio snippets. Users get summaries even if they don’t have a signal or Wi-Fi connection — and in a nod to privacy, no data leaves their phone in the process.

how can i write a speech

Nano is also in Gboard, Google’s keyboard replacement. There, it powers a feature called Smart Reply, which helps to suggest the next thing you’ll want to say when having a conversation in a messaging app. The feature initially only works with WhatsApp but will come to more apps over time, Google says.

In the Google Messages app on supported devices, Nano drives Magic Compose, which can craft messages in styles like “excited,” “formal” and “lyrical.”

Google says that a future version of Android will tap Nano to alert users to potential scams during calls. And soon, TalkBack, Google’s accessibility service, will employ Nano to create aural descriptions of objects for low-vision and blind users.

Is Gemini better than OpenAI’s GPT-4?

Google has several times  touted  Gemini’s superiority on benchmarks, claiming that Gemini Ultra exceeds current state-of-the-art results on “30 of the 32 widely used academic benchmarks used in large language model research and development.” But leaving aside the question of whether benchmarks really indicate a better model , the scores Google points to appear to be only marginally better than OpenAI’s GPT-4 models.

OpenAI’s latest flagship model, GPT-4o , pulls ahead of 1.5 Pro pretty substantially on text evaluation, visual understanding and audio translation performance, meanwhile. Anthropic’s Claude 3.5 Sonnet beats them both — but perhaps not for long, given the AI industry’s breakneck pace.

How much do the Gemini models cost?

Gemini 1.0 Pro (the first version of Gemini Pro), 1.5 Pro and Flash are available through Google’s Gemini API for building apps and services, all with free options. But the free options impose usage limits and leave out some features, like context caching.

Otherwise, Gemini models are pay-as-you-go. Here’s the base pricing (not including add-ons like context caching) as of June 2024:

  • Gemini 1.0 Pro: 50 cents per 1 million input tokens, $1.50 per 1 million output tokens
  • Gemini 1.5 Pro: $3.05 per 1 million tokens input (for prompts up to 128,000 tokens) or $7 per 1 million tokens (for prompts longer than 128,000 tokens); $10.50 per 1 million tokens (for prompts up to 128,000 tokens) or $21.00 per 1 million tokens (for prompts longer than 128,000)
  • Gemini 1.5 Flash: 35 cents per 1 million tokens (for prompts up to 128K tokens), 70 cents per 1 million tokens (for prompts longer than 128K); $1.05 per 1 million tokens (for prompts up to 128K tokens), $2.10 per 1 million tokens (for prompts longer than 128K)

Tokens are subdivided bits of raw data, like the syllables “fan,” “tas” and “tic” in the word “fantastic”; 1 million tokens is equivalent to about 700,000 words. “Input” refers to tokens fed into the model, while “output” refers to tokens that the model generates.

Ultra pricing has yet to be announced, and Nano is still in early access .

Is Gemini coming to the iPhone?

It might!  Apple and Google are reportedly in talks to put Gemini to use  for a number of features to be included in an upcoming iOS update later this year. Nothing’s definitive, as Apple is also said to be in talks with OpenAI and  has been working on developing its own generative AI capabilities .

Following a keynote presentation at WWDC 2024, Apple SVP Craig Federighi confirmed plans to work with additional third-party models including Gemini, but didn’t divulge additional details.

This post was originally published Feb. 16, 2024 and has since been updated to include new information about Gemini and Google’s plans for it.

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  22. 13 Tips For Giving a Speech That Engages Your Audience

    Here are 13 tips that can help you prepare a great speech from start to finish: 1. Determine and analyze your audience. Before writing your speech, think about who your audience is and center the tone and presentation style around them. If you're giving a speech at a conference full of business professionals, you may want to keep your speech ...

  23. 126 Good Informative Speech Topics

    What is an informative speech? You may be asking this question if you find yourself needing to give one for a class or extracurricular. Unlike a persuasive speech, which is designed to convince an audience of something, or a debate, which can be polemic by nature, an informative speech is meant to educate its listeners on a topic, elucidate an unclear idea, or simply help an audience delve ...

  24. How to Give a Speech: The Ultimate Guide for 2024

    Picture yourself delivering your speech with clarity, confidence and impact, with your audience responding positively to your words. Preparing for a successful speech. Effective speech writing involves a systematic process of researching, organizing and refining your content: Choose and cite authoritative sources. First, you need to research ...

  25. How to Write a Speech: Follow My Simple 6-Step Formula

    Step 3: The Intro. Step 4: The Body. Step 5: The Conclusion. Step 6: The CTA/CTT. Summary. Step 1. The Golden Thread. The first lesson in how to write a speech, is setting a clear objective from ...

  26. Free Speech Generator: Write A Speech for Me Online

    HIX.AI's speech generator can assist you in managing the perfect speech length according to your specified word count. Adhere to the Central Topic: Stay focused on your main topic to keep your speech coherent and compelling. Meandering off-topic can confuse your audience and weaken the impact of your message.

  27. Analysis and commentary on CNN's presidential debate

    Read CNN's analysis and commentary of the first 2024 presidential debate between President Joe Biden and former President Donald Trump in Atlanta.

  28. What Jamaal Bowman's Loss Means for the Left

    Mr. Bowman made little effort to expand his base of support and put the war in Gaza at the center of his campaign, betting that he could win by energizing a similar coalition of Black and brown ...

  29. Google Gemini: Everything you need to know about the new generative AI

    Gemini recently came to Google's Chrome browser in the form of an AI writing tool. You can use it to write something completely new or rewrite existing text; Google says it'll take into ...

  30. Donald Trump: On January 6, We Had A Secure Border, We Were Energy

    I had virtually nothing to do with it, they asked me to go make a speech. I could see what was happening. Everybody was saying they're going to be there on January 6, they're gonna be there.