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14.1 Organizing a Visual Presentation

Learning objectives.

  • Identify key ideas and details to create a concise, engaging presentation.
  • Identify the steps involved in planning a comprehensive presentation.

Until now, you have interacted with your audience of readers indirectly, on the page. You have tried to anticipate their reactions and questions as all good writers do. Anticipating the audience’s needs can be tough, especially when you are sitting alone in front of your computer.

When you give a presentation, you connect directly with your audience. For most people, making a presentation is both exciting and stressful. The excitement comes from engaging in a two-way interaction about your ideas. The stress comes from the pressure of presenting your ideas without having a delete button to undo mistakes. Outside the classroom, you may be asked to give a presentation, often at the last minute, and the show must go on. Presentations can be stressful, but planning and preparation, when the time and opportunity are available, can make all the difference.

This chapter covers how to plan and deliver an effective, engaging presentation. By planning carefully, applying some time-honored presentation strategies, and practicing, you can make sure that your presentation comes across as confident, knowledgeable, and interesting—and that your audience actually learns from it. The specific tasks involved in creating a presentation may vary slightly depending on your purpose and your assignment. However, these are the general steps.

Follow these steps to create a presentation based on your ideas:

  • Determine your purpose and identify the key ideas to present.
  • Organize your ideas in an outline.
  • Identify opportunities to incorporate visual or audio media, and create or locate these media aids.
  • Rehearse your presentation in advance.
  • Deliver your presentation to your audience.

Getting Started: Identifying and Organizing Key Ideas

To deliver a successful presentation, you need to develop content suitable for an effective presentation. Your ideas make up your presentation, but to deliver them effectively, you will need to identify key ideas and organize them carefully. Read the following considerations, which will help you first identify and then organize key ideas:

  • Be concise. You will include the most important ideas and leave out others. Some concepts may need to be simplified.
  • Employ more than one medium of expression. You should incorporate other media, such as charts, graphs, photographs, video or audio recordings, or websites.
  • Prepare for a face-to-face presentation. If you must deliver a face-to-face presentation, it is important to project yourself as a serious and well-informed speaker. You will often speak extemporaneously, or in a rehearsed but not memorized manner, which allows for flexibility given the context or audience. You will need to know your points and keep your audience engaged.

Determine Your Purpose

As with a writing assignment, determining the purpose of your presentation early on is crucial. You want to inform your readers about the topic, but think about what else you hope to achieve.

Are you presenting information intended to move your audience to adopt certain beliefs or take action on a particular issue? If so, you are speaking not only to inform but also to persuade your listeners. Do you want your audience to come away from your presentation knowing how to do something they that they did not know before? In that case, you are not only informing them but also explaining or teaching a process.

Writing at Work

Schoolteachers are trained to structure lessons around one or more lesson objectives. Usually the objective, the mission or purpose, states what students should know or be able to do after they complete the lesson. For example, an objective might state, “Students will understand the specific freedoms guaranteed by the First Amendment” or “Students will be able to add two three-digit numbers correctly.”

As a manager, mentor, or supervisor, you may sometimes be required to teach or train other employees as part of your job. Determining the desired outcome of a training session will help you plan effectively. Identify your teaching objectives. What, specifically, do you want your audience to know (for instance, details of a new workplace policy) or be able to do (for instance, use a new software program)? Plan your teaching or training session to meet your objectives.

Identify Key Ideas

To plan your presentation, think in terms of three or four key points you want to get across. In a paper, you have the space to develop ideas at length and delve into complex details. In a presentation, however, you must convey your ideas more concisely.

One strategy you might try is to create an outline. What is your main idea? Would your main idea work well as key points for a brief presentation? How would you condense topics that might be too lengthy, or should you eliminate topics that may be too complicated to address in your presentation?

1. Revisit your presentation assignment, or think of a topic for your presentation. On your own sheet of notebook paper, write a list of at least three to five key ideas. Keep the following questions in mind when listing your key ideas:

  • What is your purpose?
  • Who is your audience?
  • How will you engage your audience?

2. On the same paper, identify the steps you must complete before you begin creating your presentation.

Use an Outline to Organize Ideas

After you determine which ideas are most appropriate for your presentation, you will create an outline of those ideas. Your presentation, like a written assignment, should include an introduction, body, and conclusion. These components serve much the same purpose as they do in a written assignment.

  • The introduction engages the audience’s attention, introduces the topic, and sets the tone for what is to come.
  • The body develops your point of view with supporting ideas, details, and examples presented in a logical order.
  • The conclusion restates your point of view, sums up your main points, and leaves your audience with something to think about.

Jorge, who wrote the research paper featured in Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” , developed the following outline. Jorge relied heavily on this outline to plan his presentation, but he adjusted it to suit the new format.

Outline for a presentation including the sections: introduction, purported benefits of low-carbohydrate diets, research on low-carbohydrate diets and weight loss, other long-term health outcomes, and conclusion

Planning Your Introduction

In Chapter 12 “Writing a Research Paper” , you learned techniques for writing an interesting introduction, such as beginning with a surprising fact or statistic, a thought-provoking question or quotation, a brief anecdote that illustrates a larger concept or connects your topic to your audience’s experiences. You can use these techniques effectively in presentations as well. You might also consider actively engaging your audience by having members respond to questions or complete a brief activity related to your topic. For example, you may have your audience respond to a survey or tell about an experience related to your topic.

Incorporating media can also be an effective way to get your audience’s attention. Visual images such as a photograph or a cartoon can invoke an immediate emotional response. A graph or chart can highlight startling findings in research data or statistical information. Brief video or audio clips that clearly reinforce your message and do not distract or overwhelm your audience can provide a sense of immediacy when you plan to discuss an event or a current issue. A PowerPoint presentation allows you to integrate many of these different media sources into one presentation.

With the accessibility provided by the Internet, you can find interesting and appropriate audio and video with little difficulty. However, the clip alone will not sustain the presentation. To keep the audience interested and engaged, you must frame the beginning and end of the clip with your own words.

Jorge completed the introduction part of his outline by listing the key points he would use to open his presentation. He also planned to show various web links early on to illustrate the popularity of the low-carbohydrate diet trend.

Introduction section with the categories: background, and thesis/point of view

Planning the Body of Your Presentation

The next step is to work with the key ideas you identified earlier. Determine the order in which you want to present these ideas, and flesh them out with important details. Chapter 10 “Rhetorical Modes” discusses several organizational structures you might work with, such as chronological order, comparison-and-contrast structure, or cause-and-effect structure.

How much detail you include will depend on the time allotted for your presentation. Your instructor will most likely give you a specific time limit or a specific slide limit, such as eight to ten slides. If the time limit is very brief (two to three minutes, for instance), you will need to focus on communicating your point of view, main supporting points, and only the most relevant details. Three minutes can feel like an eternity if you are speaking before a group, but the time will pass very quickly. It is important to use it well.

If you have more time to work with—ten minutes or half an hour—you will be able to discuss your topic in greater detail. More time also means you must devote more thought into how you will hold your audience’s interest. If your presentation is longer than five minutes, introduce some variety so the audience is not bored. Incorporate multimedia, invite the audience to complete an activity, or set aside time for a question-and-answer session.

Jorge was required to limit his presentation to five to seven minutes. In his outline, he made a note about where he would need to condense some complicated material to stay within his time limit. He also decided to focus only on cholesterol and heart disease in his discussion of long-term health outcomes. The research on other issues was inconclusive, so Jorge decided to omit this material. Jorge’s notes on his outline show the revisions he has made to his presentation.

Some material could be chosen to omit

You are responsible for using your presentation time effectively to inform your audience. You show respect for your audience by following the expected time limit. However, that does not mean you must fill all of that time with talk if you are giving a face-to-face presentation. Involving your audience can take some of the pressure off you while also keeping them engaged. Have them respond to a few brief questions to get them thinking. Display a relevant photograph, document, or object and ask your classmates to comment. In some presentations, if time allows, you may choose to have your classmates complete an individual or group activity.

Planning Your Conclusion

The conclusion should briefly sum up your main idea and leave your audience with something to think about. As in a written paper, you are essentially revisiting your thesis. Depending on your topic, you may also ask the audience to reconsider their thinking about an issue, to take action, or to think about a related issue. If you presented an attention-getting fact or anecdote in your introduction, consider revisiting it in your conclusion. Just as you have learned about an essay’s conclusion, do not add new content to the presentation’s conclusion.

No matter how you choose to structure your conclusion, make sure it is well planned so that you are not tempted to wrap up your presentation too quickly. Inexperienced speakers, in a face-to-face presentation, sometimes rush through the end of a presentation to avoid exceeding the allotted time or to end the stressful experience of presenting in public. Unfortunately, a hurried conclusion makes the presentation as a whole less memorable.

Time management is the key to delivering an effective presentation whether it is face-to-face or in PowerPoint. As you develop your outline, think about the amount of time you will devote to each section. For instance, in a five-minute face-to-face presentation, you might plan to spend one minute on the introduction, three minutes on the body, and one minute on the conclusion. Later, when you rehearse, you can time yourself to determine whether you need to adjust your content or delivery.

In a PowerPoint presentation, it is important that your presentation is visually stimulating, avoids information overload by limiting the text per slide, uses speaker notes effectively, and uses a font that is visible on the background (e.g., avoid white letters on a light background or black letters on a dark background).

Work with the list you created in Note 14.4 “Exercise 1” to develop a more complete outline for your presentation. Make sure your outline includes the following:

  • An introduction that uses strategies to capture your audience’s attention
  • A body section that summarizes your main points and supporting details
  • A conclusion that will help you end on a memorable note
  • Brief notes about how much time you plan to spend on each part of the presentation (you may adjust the timing later as needed)

Identifying Opportunities to Incorporate Visual and Audio Media

You may already have some ideas for how to incorporate visual and audio media in your presentation. If not, review your outline and begin thinking about where to include media. Presenting information in a variety of formats will help you keep your audience’s interest.

Use Presentation Software

Delivering your presentation as a slideshow is one way to use media to your advantage. As you speak, you use a computer and an attached projector to display a slideshow of text and graphics that complement the speech. Your audience will follow your ideas more easily, because you are communicating with them through more than one sense. The audience hears your words and also sees the corresponding visuals. A listener who momentarily loses track of what you are saying can rely on the slide to cue his or her memory.

To set up your presentation, you will need to work with the content of your outline to develop individual slides. Each slide should focus on just a few bullet points (or a similar amount of content presented in a graphic). Remember that your audience must be able to read the slides easily, whether the members sit in the front or the back of the room. Avoid overcrowding the slides with too much text.

Using presentation software, such as PowerPoint, allows you to incorporate graphics, sounds, and even web links directly into your slides. You can also work with available styles, color schemes, and fonts to give your presentation a polished, consistent appearance. Different slide templates make it easy to organize information to suit your purpose. Be sure your font is visible to you audience. Avoid using small font or colored font that is not visible against your background.

Use PowerPoint as a Visual Aid

PowerPoint and similar visual representation programs can be effective tools to help audiences remember your message, but they can also be an annoying distraction to your speech. How you prepare your slides and use the tool will determine your effectiveness.

PowerPoint is a slideware program that you have no doubt seen used in class, seen in a presentation at work, or perhaps used yourself to support a presentation. PowerPoint and similar slideware programs provide templates for creating electronic slides to present visual information to the audience, reinforcing the verbal message. You will be able to import or cut and paste words from text files, images, or video clips to create slides to represent your ideas. You can even incorporate web links. When using any software program, it is always a good idea to experiment with it long before you intend to use it; explore its many options and functions, and see how it can be an effective tool for you.

At first, you might be overwhelmed by the possibilities, and you might be tempted to use all the bells, whistles, and sound effects, not to mention the tumbling, flying, and animated graphics. If used wisely, a dissolve or key transition can be like a well-executed scene from a major motion picture and lead your audience to the next point. But if used indiscriminately, it can annoy the audience to the point where they cringe in anticipation of the sound effect at the start of each slide. This danger is inherent in the tool, but you are in charge of it and can make wise choices that enhance the understanding and retention of your information.

The first point to consider is which visual aid is the most important. The answer is you, the speaker. You will facilitate the discussion, give life to the information, and help the audience correlate the content to your goal or purpose. You do not want to be in a position where the PowerPoint presentation is the focus and you are on the side of the stage simply helping the audience follow along. Slides should support you in your presentation, rather than the other way around. Just as there is a number one rule for handouts (do not pass them out at the start of your presentation), there is also one for PowerPoint presentations: do not use PowerPoint slides as a read-aloud script for your speech. The PowerPoint slides should amplify and illustrate your main points, not reproduce everything you are going to say.

Your pictures are the second area of emphasis you will want to consider. The tool will allow you to show graphs, charts and illustrate relationships that words may only approach in terms of communication, but your verbal support of the visual images will make all the difference. Dense pictures or complicated graphics will confuse more than they clarify. Choose clear images that have an immediate connection to both your content and the audience, tailored to their specific needs. After the images, consider using only key words that can be easily read to accompany your pictures. The fewer words the better. Try to keep each slide to a total word count of less than ten words. Do not use full sentences. Using key words provides support for your verbal discussion, guiding you as well as your audience. The key words can serve as signposts or signal words related to key ideas.

A natural question at this point is, How do I communicate complex information simply? The answer comes with several options. The visual representation on the screen is for support and illustration. Should you need to communicate more technical, complex, or in-depth information in a visual way, consider preparing a handout to distribute at the conclusion of your speech. You may also consider using a printout of your slide show with a section for taking notes, but if you distribute it at the beginning of your speech, you run the risk of turning your presentation into a guided reading exercise and possibly distracting or losing members of the audience. Everyone reads at a different pace and takes notes in their own way. You do not want to be in the position of going back and forth between slides to help people follow along.

Another point to consider is how you want to use the tool to support your speech and how your audience will interpret its presentation. Most audiences wouldn’t want to read a page of text—as you might see in this book—on the big screen. They will be far more likely to glance at the screen and assess the information you present in relation to your discussion. Therefore, it is key to consider one main idea, relationship, or point per slide. The use of the tool should be guided with the idea that its presentation is for the audience’s benefit, not yours. People often understand pictures and images more quickly and easily than text, and you can use this to your advantage, using the knowledge that a picture is worth a thousand words.

Incorporate Visual Media

Even if you do not use a slideshow to complement your presentation, you can include visual media to support and enhance your content. Visual media are divided into two major categories: images and informational graphics.

Image-based media, such as photographs or videos, often have little or no accompanying text. Often these media are more powerful than words in getting a message across. Within the past decade, the images associated with major news stories, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the Abu Ghraib prison abuses from 2004 to 2006, and the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, have powerfully affected viewers’ emotions and drawn their attention to these news stories.

Figure 14.1

A screen shot of a power point

Even if your presentation addresses a less dramatic subject, you can still use images to draw in your audience. Consider how photographs, an illustration, or a video might help your audience connect with a particular person or place or bring a historical event to life. Use visual images to support descriptions of natural or man-made phenomena. What ideas lend themselves to being explained primarily through images?

In addition, consider how you might incorporate informational graphics in your presentation. Informational graphics include diagrams, tables, pie charts, bar and line graphs, and flow charts. Informational graphics usually include some text and often work well to present numerical information. Consider using them if you are presenting statistics, comparing facts or data about several different groups, describing changes over time, or presenting a process.

Incorporate Audio Media

Although audio media are not as versatile as visual media, you may wish to use them if they work well with your particular topic. If your presentation discusses trends in pop music or analyzes political speeches, playing an audio clip is an obvious and effective choice. Clips from historical speeches, radio talk shows, and interviews can also be used, but extended clips may be ineffective with modern audiences. Always assess your audience’s demographics and expectations before selecting and including audio media.

Review the outline you created in Note 14.11 “Exercise 2” . Complete the following steps:

  • Identify at least two to three places in your presentation where you might incorporate visual or audio media. Brainstorm ideas for what media would be effective, and create a list of ideas. (In Chapter 14 “Creating Presentations: Sharing Your Ideas” , Section 14.2 “Incorporating Effective Visuals into a Presentation” , you will explore different media options in greater depth. For now, focus on coming up with a few general ideas.)
  • Determine whether you will use presentation software to deliver your presentation as a slideshow. If you plan to do so, begin using your outline to draft your slides.

Figure 14.2

Another screen shot of a power point

Source: http://www.agenciabrasil.gov.br/media/imagens/2010/01/14/14.01.10RP5978.jpg/view

Planning Ahead: Annotating Your Presentation

When you make a presentation, you are giving a performance of sorts. It may not be as dramatic as a play or a movie, but it requires smooth coordination of several elements—your words, your gestures, and any media you include. One way to ensure that the performance goes smoothly is to annotate your presentation ahead of time.

To annotate means to add comments or notes to a document. You can use this technique to plan how the different parts of your presentation will flow together. For instance, if you are working with slides, add notes to your outline indicating when you will show each slide. If you have other visual or audio media to include, make a note of that, too. Be as detailed as necessary. Jotting “Start video at 3:14” can spare you the awkwardness of searching for the right clip during your presentation.

In the workplace, employees are often asked to deliver presentations or conduct a meeting using standard office presentation software. If you are using presentation software, you can annotate your presentation easily as you create your slides. Use the notes feature at the bottom of the page to add notes for each slide. As you deliver your presentation, your notes will be visible to you on the computer screen but not to your audience on the projector screen.

In a face-to-face presentation, make sure your final annotated outline is easy to read. It will serve to cue you during your presentation, so it does not need to look polished, as long as it is clear to you. Double space the text. Use a larger-than-normal font size (14 or 16 points) if that will make it easier for you to read. Boldface or italics will set off text that should be emphasized or delivered with greater emotion. Write out main points, as well as your opening and closing remarks, in complete sentences, along with any material you want to quote verbatim. Use shorter phrases for supporting details. Using your speaker notes effectively will help you deliver an effective presentation. Highlighting, all capital letters, or different-colored font will help you easily distinguish notes from the text of your speech. Read Jorge’s annotated outline.

Jorge's annotated outline

Some students prefer to write out the full text of their face-to-face presentation. This can be a useful strategy when you are practicing your delivery. However, keep in mind that reading your text aloud, word for word, will not help you capture and hold your audience’s attention. Write out and read your speech if that helps you rehearse. After a few practice sessions, when you are more comfortable with your material, switch to working from an outline. That will help you sound more natural when you speak to an audience.

In a PowerPoint presentation, remember to have your slides in logical sequential order. Annotating your presentation before submitting it to your audience or your instructor will help you check for order and logical transitions. Too much text or data may confuse your audience; strive for clarity and avoid unnecessary details. Let the pictures or graphics tell the story but do not overload your slideshow with visuals. Be sure your font is visible. Look for consistency in the time limit of your presentation to gauge your level of preparedness.

Begin to annotate your outline. (You will probably add more notes as you proceed, but including some annotations now will help you begin pulling your ideas together.) Mark your outline with the following information:

  • Write notes in brackets to any sections where you definitely plan to incorporate visual or audio media.
  • If you are presenting a slideshow, add notes in brackets indicating which slides go with each section of your outline.
  • Identify and set off any text that should be emphasized.

Sometimes bolding parts in the outline is helpful

Key Takeaways

  • An effective presentation presents ideas more concisely than a written document and uses media to explain ideas and hold the audience’s interest.
  • Like an essay, a presentation should have a clear beginning, middle, and end.
  • Good writers structure their presentations on the thesis, or point of view; main ideas; and key supporting details and create a presentation outline to organize their ideas.
  • Annotating a presentation outline is a useful way to coordinate different parts of the presentation and manage time effectively.

Writing for Success Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Introduction to CSS layout

  • Overview: CSS layout

This article will recap some of the CSS layout features we've already touched upon in previous modules, such as different display values, as well as introduce some of the concepts we'll be covering throughout this module.

Prerequisites: The basics of HTML (study ), and an idea of How CSS works (study .)
Objective: To give you an overview of CSS page layout techniques. Each technique can be learned in greater detail in subsequent tutorials.

CSS page layout techniques allow us to take elements contained in a web page and control where they're positioned relative to the following factors: their default position in normal layout flow, the other elements around them, their parent container, and the main viewport/window. The page layout techniques we'll be covering in more detail in this module are:

Normal flow

The display property.

  • Positioning

Table layout

  • Multiple-column layout

Each technique has its uses, advantages, and disadvantages. No technique is designed to be used in isolation. By understanding what each layout method is designed for you'll be in a good position to understand which method is most appropriate for each task.

Normal flow is how the browser lays out HTML pages by default when you do nothing to control page layout. Let's look at a quick HTML example:

By default, the browser will display this code as follows:

Note how the HTML is displayed in the exact order in which it appears in the source code, with elements stacked on top of one another — the first paragraph, followed by the unordered list, followed by the second paragraph.

The elements that appear one below the other are described as block elements, in contrast to inline elements, which appear beside one another like the individual words in a paragraph.

Note: The direction in which block element contents are laid out is described as the Block Direction. The Block Direction runs vertically in a language such as English, which has a horizontal writing mode. It would run horizontally in any language with a Vertical Writing Mode, such as Japanese. The corresponding Inline Direction is the direction in which inline contents (such as a sentence) would run.

For many of the elements on your page, the normal flow will create exactly the layout you need. However, for more complex layouts you will need to alter this default behavior using some of the tools available to you in CSS. Starting with a well-structured HTML document is very important because you can then work with the way things are laid out by default rather than fighting against it.

The methods that can change how elements are laid out in CSS are:

  • The display property — Standard values such as block , inline or inline-block can change how elements behave in normal flow, for example, by making a block-level element behave like an inline-level element (see Types of CSS boxes for more information). We also have entire layout methods that are enabled via specific display values, for example, CSS grid and Flexbox , which alter how child elements are laid out inside their parents.
  • Floats — Applying a float value such as left can cause block-level elements to wrap along one side of an element, like the way images sometimes have text floating around them in magazine layouts.
  • The position property — Allows you to precisely control the placement of boxes inside other boxes. static positioning is the default in normal flow, but you can cause elements to be laid out differently using other values, for example, as fixed to the top of the browser viewport.
  • Table layout — Features designed for styling parts of an HTML table can be used on non-table elements using display: table and associated properties.
  • Multi-column layout — The Multi-column layout properties can cause the content of a block to lay out in columns, as you might see in a newspaper.

The main methods for achieving page layout in CSS all involve specifying values for the display property. This property allows us to change the default way something displays. Everything in normal flow has a default value for display ; i.e., a default way that elements are set to behave. For example, the fact that paragraphs in English display one below the other is because they are styled with display: block . If you create a link around some text inside a paragraph, that link remains inline with the rest of the text, and doesn't break onto a new line. This is because the <a> element is display: inline by default.

You can change this default display behavior. For example, the <li> element is display: block by default, meaning that list items display one below the other in our English document. If we were to change the display value to inline they would display next to each other, as words would do in a sentence. The fact that you can change the value of display for any element means that you can pick HTML elements for their semantic meaning without being concerned about how they will look. The way they look is something that you can change.

In addition to being able to change the default presentation by turning an item from block to inline and vice versa, there are some more involved layout methods that start out as a value of display . However, when using these you will generally need to invoke additional properties. The two values most important for our discussion of layout are display: flex and display: grid .

Flexbox is the short name for the Flexible Box Layout CSS module, designed to make it easy for us to lay things out in one dimension — either as a row or as a column. To use flexbox, you apply display: flex to the parent element of the elements you want to lay out; all its direct children then become flex items . We can see this in a simple example.

Setting display: flex

The HTML markup below gives us a containing element with a class of wrapper , inside of which are three <div> elements. By default these would display as block elements, that is, below one another in our English language document.

However, if we add display: flex to the parent, the three items now arrange themselves into columns. This is due to them becoming flex items and being affected by some initial values that flexbox sets on the flex container. They are displayed in a row because the property flex-direction of the parent element has an initial value of row . They all appear to stretch in height because the property align-items of their parent element has an initial value of stretch . This means that the items stretch to the height of the flex container, which in this case is defined by the tallest item. The items all line up at the start of the container, leaving any extra space at the end of the row.

Setting the flex property

In addition to properties that can be applied to a flex container , there are also properties that can be applied to flex items . These properties, among other things, can change the way that items flex , enabling them to expand or contract according to available space.

As a simple example, we can add the flex property to all of our child items, and give it a value of 1 . This will cause all of the items to grow and fill the container, rather than leaving space at the end. If there is more space then the items will become wider; if there is less space they will become narrower. In addition, if you add another element to the markup, the other items will all become smaller to make space for it; the items all together continue taking up all the space.

Note: This has been a very short introduction to what is possible in flexbox. To find out more, see our Flexbox article.

Grid Layout

While flexbox is designed for one-dimensional layout, Grid Layout is designed for two dimensions — lining things up in rows and columns.

Setting display: grid

Similar to flexbox, we enable grid layout with its specific display value — display: grid . The below example uses similar markup to the flex example, with a container and some child elements. In addition to using display: grid , we also define some row and column tracks for the parent using the grid-template-rows and grid-template-columns properties respectively. We've defined three columns, each of 1fr , as well as two rows of 100px . We don't need to put any rules on the child elements; they're automatically placed into the cells our grid's created.

Placing items on the grid

Once you have a grid, you can explicitly place your items on it, rather than relying on the auto-placement behavior seen above. In the next example below, we've defined the same grid, but this time with three child items. We've set the start and end line of each item using the grid-column and grid-row properties. This causes the items to span multiple tracks.

Note: These two examples reveal just a small sample of the power of grid layout. To learn more, see our Grid Layout article.

The rest of this guide covers other layout methods that are less important for the main layout of your page, but still help to achieve specific tasks. By understanding the nature of each layout task you will soon find that when you look at a particular component of your design, the type of layout most suitable for it will often be clear.

Floating an element changes the behavior of that element and the block level elements that follow it in normal flow. The floated element is moved to the left or right and removed from normal flow, and the surrounding content floats around it.

The float property has four possible values:

  • left — Floats the element to the left.
  • right — Floats the element to the right.
  • none — Specifies no floating at all. This is the default value.
  • inherit — Specifies that the value of the float property should be inherited from the element's parent element.

In the example below, we float a <div> left and give it a margin on the right to push the surrounding text away from it. This gives us the effect of text wrapped around the boxed element, and is most of what you need to know about floats as used in modern web design.

Note: Floats are fully explained in our lesson on the float and clear properties. Prior to techniques such as flexbox and grid layout, floats were used as a method of creating column layouts. You may still come across these methods on the web; we will cover these in the lesson on legacy layout methods .

Positioning techniques

Positioning allows you to move an element from where it would otherwise be placed in normal flow over to another location. Positioning isn't a method for creating the main layouts of a page; it's more about managing and fine-tuning the position of specific items on a page.

There are, however, useful techniques for obtaining specific layout patterns that rely on the position property. Understanding positioning also helps in understanding normal flow, and what it means to move an item out of the normal flow.

There are five types of positioning you should know about:

  • Static positioning is the default that every element gets. It just means "put the element into its normal position in the document layout flow — nothing special to see here".
  • Relative positioning allows you to modify an element's position on the page, moving it relative to its position in normal flow, as well as making it overlap other elements on the page.
  • Absolute positioning moves an element completely out of the page's normal layout flow, like it's sitting on its own separate layer. From there, you can fix it to a position relative to the edges of its closest positioned ancestor (which becomes <html> if no other ancestors are positioned). This is useful for creating complex layout effects, such as tabbed boxes where different content panels sit on top of one another and are shown and hidden as desired, or information panels that sit off-screen by default, but can be made to slide on screen using a control button.
  • Fixed positioning is very similar to absolute positioning except that it fixes an element relative to the browser viewport, not another element. This is useful for creating effects such as a persistent navigation menu that always stays in the same place on the screen as the rest of the content scrolls.
  • Sticky positioning is a newer positioning method that makes an element act like position: relative until it hits a defined offset from the viewport, at which point it acts like position: fixed .

Simple positioning example

To provide familiarity with these page layout techniques, we'll show you a couple of quick examples. Our examples will all feature the same HTML structure (a heading followed by three paragraphs), which is as follows:

This HTML will be styled by default using the following CSS:

The rendered output is as follows:

Relative positioning

Relative positioning allows you to offset an item from its default position in normal flow. This means you could achieve a task such as moving an icon down a bit so it lines up with a text label. To do this, we could add the following rule to add relative positioning:

Here we give our middle paragraph a position value of relative . This doesn't do anything on its own, so we also add top and left properties. These serve to move the affected element down and to the right. This might seem like the opposite of what you were expecting, but you need to think of it as the element being pushed on its left and top sides, which results in it moving right and down.

Adding this code will give the following result:

Absolute positioning

Absolute positioning is used to completely remove an element from the normal flow and instead position it using offsets from the edges of a containing block.

Going back to our original non-positioned example, we could add the following CSS rule to implement absolute positioning:

Here we give our middle paragraph a position value of absolute and the same top and left properties as before. Adding this code will produce the following result:

This is very different! The positioned element has now been completely separated from the rest of the page layout and sits over the top of it. The other two paragraphs now sit together as if their positioned sibling doesn't exist. The top and left properties have a different effect on absolutely positioned elements than they do on relatively positioned elements. In this case, the offsets have been calculated from the top and left of the page. It is possible to change the parent element that becomes this container and we will take a look at that in the lesson on positioning .

Fixed positioning

Fixed positioning removes our element from document flow in the same way as absolute positioning. However, instead of the offsets being applied from the container, they are applied from the viewport. Because the item remains fixed in relation to the viewport, we can create effects such as a menu that remains fixed as the page scrolls beneath it.

For this example, our HTML contains three paragraphs of text so that we can scroll through the page, as well as a box with the property of position: fixed .

Sticky positioning

Sticky positioning is the final positioning method that we have at our disposal. It mixes relative positioning with fixed positioning. When an item has position: sticky , it'll scroll in normal flow until it hits offsets from the viewport that we have defined. At that point, it becomes "stuck" as if it had position: fixed applied.

Note: To find out more about positioning, see our Positioning article.

When looking at the source code on older websites, you may discover that tables have been used for laying out forms. HTML tables should be reserved for displaying tabular data. Using tables for anything other than tabular data has many problems: table layouts are inflexible, very heavy on markup, difficult to debug, and semantically wrong (e.g., screen reader users have problems navigating table layouts).

The appearance of a table on a webpage when you use table markup is due to a set of CSS properties that define its layout. These same properties can also be used to lay out elements that aren't tables, a use which is sometimes described as "using CSS tables". The example below shows one such use.

Let's look at an example. First, some simple markup that creates an HTML form. Each input element has a label. We also included a caption inside a paragraph; though another option is using a <fieldset> with a <legend> . Each label/input pair is wrapped in a <div> for layout purposes.

As for the CSS, most of it's fairly ordinary except for the uses of the display property. The <form> , <div> s, and <label> s and <input> s have been told to display like a table, table rows, and table cells respectively. Basically, they'll act like HTML table markup, causing the labels and inputs to line up nicely by default. All we then have to do is add a bit of sizing, margin, etc., to make everything look a bit nicer and we're done.

You'll notice that the caption paragraph has been given display: table-caption; , which makes it act like a table <caption> , and caption-side: bottom; to tell the caption to sit on the bottom of the table for styling purposes, even though the markup is before the <input> elements in the source. This allows for a nice bit of flexibility.

This gives us the following result:

You can also see this example live at css-tables-example.html (see the source code too.)

Note: Table layout, unlike the other topics of this page, won't be further covered in this module. Use grid layout instead.

Multi-column layout

The multi-column layout CSS module provides us a way to lay out content in columns, similar to how text flows in a newspaper. While reading up and down columns is less useful in a web context due to the users having to scroll up and down, arranging content into columns can, nevertheless, be a useful technique.

To turn a block into a multi-column container, we use either the column-count property, which tells the browser how many columns we would like to have, or the column-width property, which tells the browser to fill the container with as many columns as possible of a specified width .

In the below example, we start with a block of HTML inside a containing <div> element with a class of container .

We're using a column-width of 200 pixels on that container, causing the browser to create as many 200 pixel columns as will fit. Whatever space is left between the columns will be shared.

This article has provided a brief summary of all the layout technologies you should know about. Read on for more information on each individual technology!

6.5 Controlling

  • How do organizations control activities?

The fourth key function that managers perform is controlling . Controlling is the process of assessing the organization’s progress toward accomplishing its goals. It includes monitoring the implementation of a plan and correcting deviations from that plan. As Exhibit 6.6 shows, controlling can be visualized as a cyclical process made up of five stages:

Performance standards are the levels of performance the company wants to attain. These goals are based on its strategic, tactical, and operational plans. The most effective performance standards state a measurable behavioral objective that can be achieved in a specified time frame. For example, the performance objective for the sales division of a company could be stated as “$200,000 in gross sales for the month of January.” Each individual employee in that division would also have a specified performance goal. Actual firm, division, or individual performance can be measured against desired performance standards to see if a gap exists between the desired level of performance and the actual level of performance. If a performance gap does exist, the reason for it must be determined and corrective action taken.

Feedback is essential to the process of control. Most companies have a reporting system that identifies areas where performance standards are not being met. A feedback system helps managers detect problems before they get out of hand. If a problem exists, the managers take corrective action. Toyota uses a simple but effective control system on its automobile assembly lines. Each worker serves as the customer for the process just before his or hers. Each worker is empowered to act as a quality control inspector. If a part is defective or not installed properly, the next worker won’t accept it. Any worker can alert the supervisor to a problem by tugging on a rope that turns on a warning light (i.e., feedback). If the problem isn’t corrected, the worker can stop the entire assembly line.

Why is controlling such an important part of a manager’s job? First, it helps managers to determine the success of the other three functions: planning, organizing, and leading. Second, control systems direct employee behavior toward achieving organizational goals. Third, control systems provide a means of coordinating employee activities and integrating resources throughout the organization.

Concept Check

  • Describe the control process.
  • Why is the control process important to the success of the organization?

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Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/introduction-business/pages/1-introduction
  • Authors: Lawrence J. Gitman, Carl McDaniel, Amit Shah, Monique Reece, Linda Koffel, Bethann Talsma, James C. Hyatt
  • Publisher/website: OpenStax
  • Book title: Introduction to Business
  • Publication date: Sep 19, 2018
  • Location: Houston, Texas
  • Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/introduction-business/pages/1-introduction
  • Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/introduction-business/pages/6-5-controlling

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Lesson 2: Content, Structure, Presentation, and Behavior

Earlier in this course you learned to control the presentation of your web content using Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). In this lesson, you will learn how to control web page presentation using your web authoring software. Some web authoring software provides direct support for CSS, while other products handle presentation in other ways. which may or may not be compliant with web standards. Which category does your web authoring software fall into? How could its support for CSS be improved?

Learner Outcome

At the completion of this exercise, you will be able to:

  • control and manipulate the style of HTML elements on a web page using web authoring software.

Examples of Style Techniques in Common Web Authoring Tools

CSS is integrated tightly into Dreamweaver, so there are many ways to define and edit styles and assign them to various elements on the page. Here are a few tips:

  • From the main menu, select Format > CSS Styles, then you can either select "New..." to create a new style sheet, or "Attach Style Sheet..." to load an existing one.
  • From the main menu, select Modify > CSS Styles. A window appears that shows all styles that apply to the page, or to the selected content. Double-clicking any CSS selector within this window brings up a CSS Rule Definition window like the one shown below. This window can be used to define styles simply by selecting options. You don't have to remember the names of all those CSS properties!
  • To assign a class to an element, just right click on any element on your web page, then select "CSS Styles" from the menu that pops up. If a style sheet has been associated with the web page, you will see a list of CSS classes and can select the one you want to apply to that element.

Like Dreamweaver, KompoZer includes a dialog box from which you can create CSS style definitions by selecting values for various properties. As of version 0.8b3, this feature is accessed from the main menu by selecting Tools > CSS Editor.

After you've defined CSS classes, these appear in a dropdown list on the toolbar, so they can easily be assigned to any element just by selecting the element, then choosing the desired class from the toolbar.

Below is a screen shot of the CSS Editor in KompoZer:

Other Web Authoring Software

  • If a web authoring tool supports CSS, it is typically easy to find in the menus or toolbars. If you can't find any options related to CSS in your software, or you can't figure out how to use them, try searching the software's Help system for "CSS", and explore the matching help pages to learn about techniques.
  • If a web authoring tool has little or no documentation concerning CSS, it probably has little or no support for CSS, and is instead relying on outdated non-standard techniques for controlling the presentation of web content. Web authoring tools that don't support CSS should be avoided.
  • Make a copy of your portfolio, including all files, especially the CSS file. Then, using your web authoring software, open the home page of the new copy using your web authoring software. Important! Be sure you open the copy, not the original.
  • Now play with your web authoring tool's CSS features. Try to find and modify as many CSS properties as possible to change the appearance of your web page. Try to make your web page look better, but if you already had the perfect design, just try to make it look different .
  • When you're satisfied with the look of your new page, save all related files (most web authoring software has an option in the File menu for this).

Share your newly stylized portfolio home page with your instructor. Be prepared to explain to the instructor which styles you changed and how, in order to attain the current look and feel of your web page. When you're finished, proceed to the next lesson .

http://quizlet.com

1. Introduction to Quizlet

2. Requirements/prerequisites of using Quizlet

3. Getting started

4. How to use Quizlet in classroom

5. Links for further information

Can you think of any ideas that can go with Quizlet?

INTRODUCTION

1. What is Quizlet?

2. Creating

3. Studying

What is Quizlet?

  • a free website providing learning tools, including flashcards, study and game modes.
  • created by high school sophomore Andrew Sutherland in 2005
  • over 400 million study sets
  • user-generated materials.
  • �start by creating your own study sets with terms and definitions.
  • add images, copy and paste from another source / use Quizlet's built-in auto-define feature to speed up the creating process.

Track your progress with 6 powerful study and game modes!

  • Flashcards —Review your material, shuffle/randomize, or listen with audio.
  • Speller — Type what you hear in this audio-powered study mode.
  • Learn —Track your correct/incorrect answers and retest the ones you've missed.
  • Test —Randomly generate tests based on your flashcard set.
  • Scatter —Race against the clock to drag and match terms/definitions.
  • Space Race —Type in the answer as terms/definitions scroll across the screen.
  • available in 18 languages
  • Perfect for language study, practicing pronunciation, and learning vocabulary.

Studying your materials anywhere with mobile apps for iphone, Android, windows and more.

REQUIREMENTS/PREREQUISITES

  • a computer connected to the internet
  • an email address and a free account
  • students should be 13 years or older to create an account.
  • PDF printing options for offline Quizlet.
  • ICT Proficiency for teachers: easy/basic
  • Access to other sites/tools: Flickr, Youtube, other websites etc...

WHY QUIZLET?

  • are study materials online with your classes.
  • Create photocopy-ready flashcards or tests for class.
  • Host a group where students can create study materials for each other.

Quizlet is great at school, for individual or group study.

You can create your own flashcards for using in your classroom. By clicking onto: http://community.eflclassroom.com/page/quizlet-1 you will find the relevant sets of flashcards related to the preparation of your own content.

GETTING STARTED

1. Go to quizlet.com

2. Create an account.

3. Click on "Make Flashcard".

• Add a Title

• Tag your stack by adding a subject.

Example: FCPSESS, fifth grade

• Visible to = Everyone

Editors = Just Me

• You can add a description if you wish

• Click off of set discussion

4. Add Terms and Definitions

5. Add Images if you wish. ( With a free account you can only add images from Flickr)

6. Click on "Create Set".

(Links for video tutorials and Quizlet demo:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W3cRec72mkA

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7QgCZAkIk8 )

LINKS FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

More tutorials

  • Quizlet Basic Information - (PDF - A basic informational quick guide about Quizlet and how to create a set)
  • Quizlet Created - Resources for Teachers - (Videos, Slides, and PDF's from Quizlet website)
  • Create Flashcards on Quizlet (Instructions from Quizlet website)
  • Exporting a Set on Quizlet - (Video screencast directions)
  • Exporting a Set on Quizlet - (PDF)
  • Combining Sets on Quizlet - (Video screencast directions)
  • Create a Group for your Students - Additional Tips for Creating Educational Groups (Instructions from Quizlet website)
  • Information on Students' Quizlet Results (Instructions from Quizlet website)
  • Embedding Quizlet Flashcards into Your Teacher Webpage - (PDF)

Module 1: Introduction to Management

Assignment: primary functions of management, preparation.

Our text describes the four important and dynamic primary functions of management as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.  In this assignment you will identify, describe, and differentiate the four functions. The following steps will help you prepare for your written assignment:

  • Thoroughly read the Introduction to Management module.
  • Carefully consider the four primary functions of management in the context of a business you know. This could be your workplace, Nokia or ThyssenKrupp introduced to you earlier, or another selected business you are familiar with.
  • Select one of the four functions of management that your reading and consideration leads you to believe is the most important. If you believe no single function stands out, then you may select the interoperability of all four.

Write a three-paragraph essay describing your chosen function, and why you rank its importance so highly. Your essay must include three properly referenced and defined terms from the module reading. For example, if you select Controlling, you could include the definition of feedback loop . Answer and address these questions:

  • What is the primary function you selected?
  • How does it interact with the other functions?
  • What would happen to “management” without your selected function?
  • What factors cause you to rank its importance above the others?

In addition to the text, you are encouraged to research your topic using reliable and properly cited Internet resources.

Your written assignment will be graded using the Written Assignment Rubric . Please review and keep it in mind as you prepare your assignment. Each component is weighted as follows:

10% Organization and Format

Adequate: Writing is coherent and logically organized, using a format suitable for the material presented. Transitions used between ideas and paragraphs create coherence. Overall unity of ideas is supported by the format and organization of the material presented.

40% Content

Adequate: All required questions are addressed with thoughtful consideration reflecting both proper use of content terminology and additional original thought. Some additional concepts are presented from properly cited sources, or originated by the author following logic and reasoning they’ve clearly presented throughout the writing.

40% Development – Critical Thinking

Adequate: Content indicates original thinking, cohesive conclusions, and developed ideas with sufficient and firm evidence. Ideas presented are not merely the opinion of the writer, and clearly address all of the questions or requirements asked with evidence presented to support conclusions drawn.

10% Grammar, Mechanics, Style

Adequate: Writing is free of spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors, allowing the reader to follow ideas clearly. There are no sentence fragments and run-ons. The style of writing, tone, and use of rhetorical devices is presented in a cohesive style that enhances the content of the message.

  • Assignment: Primary Functions of Management. Authored by : Betty Fitte and Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution

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IMAGES

  1. Kapitel 05: Controlling-Karteikarten

    controlling page presentation assignment quizlet

  2. Controlling Flashcards

    controlling page presentation assignment quizlet

  3. Controlling

    controlling page presentation assignment quizlet

  4. Lerneinheit 1 und 2_Einführung in das Controlling Flashcards

    controlling page presentation assignment quizlet

  5. Quizlet Assignment

    controlling page presentation assignment quizlet

  6. LP4.1 Assignment: Controlling Presentation

    controlling page presentation assignment quizlet

VIDEO

  1. How to Apply Layouts on a Slide in Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation

  2. Client Presentation Assignment 3

  3. BKAM3033 SEMINAR MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

  4. Client Presentation Assignment 3

  5. Quizlet to Schoology

  6. Using Control D in PowerPoint

COMMENTS

  1. POWERPOINT LAYOUT AND MODIFYING VIEWS Flashcards

    Reading. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like slide, One page of content in a PowerPoint presentation is referred to as a _____., When developing a presentation, you should consider the venue in which you will be presenting, but you must also consider the _____ before designing the presentation. and more.

  2. Powerpoint Flashcards

    The basic unit of any powerpoint presentation is a (n) __. Slide. The title of a presentation is displayed in the ____. Title bar. The ___ is considered the control center in Powerpoint 2007. Ribbon. The most often used commands are located on the ___ tab. Home. Dialog boxes can be displayed by clicking the ____.

  3. Powerpoint Lesson 1 Quiz Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like What is the name of the area that contains the zoom control and PowerPoint view buttons? a) Status bar b) Title bar c) Scroll bar d) Slides Pane, Which pane in Microsoft PowerPoint provides an area for placing reminders to help a presenter during a presentation? a) Notes b) Slides c) Outline d) File, Keshawn has never used ...

  4. 14.1 Organizing a Visual Presentation

    Follow these steps to create a presentation based on your ideas: Determine your purpose and identify the key ideas to present. Organize your ideas in an outline. Identify opportunities to incorporate visual or audio media, and create or locate these media aids. Rehearse your presentation in advance.

  5. 6.2 Designing a Presentation in Microsoft PowerPoint

    Getting Started. Open PowerPoint and choose a blank presentation (the first option). You should see a screen that looks like Figure 6.5, with an arrow highlighting the desired choice. If you want to open an existing presentation, select Open from the left sidebar and search for the file.

  6. PDF Designing Effective PowerPoint Presentations

    The Assertion-Evidence Model of Slide Design. 1) Clearly assert the slide's main idea in a complete sentence. a. Appears at the top of the slide. b. Contains one distinct point. c. Flows logically from previous slide. 2) Reinforce the argument with visual evidence. a.

  7. Introduction to CSS layout

    CSS page layout techniques allow us to take elements contained in a web page and control where they're positioned relative to the following factors: their default position in normal layout flow, the other elements around them, their parent container, and the main viewport/window. The page layout techniques we'll be covering in more detail in ...

  8. 6.5 Controlling

    Introduction; 1.1 The Nature of Business; 1.2 Understanding the Business Environment; 1.3 How Business and Economics Work; 1.4 Macroeconomics: The Big Picture; 1.5 Achieving Macroeconomic Goals; 1.6 Microeconomics: Zeroing in on Businesses and Consumers; 1.7 Competing in a Free Market; 1.8 Trends in the Business Environment and Competition; Key Terms; Summary of Learning Outcomes

  9. 14.2: Incorporating Effective Visuals into a Presentation

    Exercise 14.2.1 14.2. 1. In this exercise, you will begin to refine your ideas for incorporating media into your presentation. Complete the following steps on your own sheet of paper. Revisit the list you brainstormed for Exercise 3 in Section 14.1 and the annotated outline you developed for Exercise 4.

  10. Computer Applications Microsoft PowerPoint Section 5.2 Assignment

    Computer Applications Microsoft PowerPoint Section 5.2 Assignment. You want to clearly convey your message through brief talking points presented in an organized way that's appropriate for the audience. Consider text size and color. Click the card to flip 👆. List at least three considerations when planning a presentation.

  11. WebD2: Content, Structure, Presentation, and Behavior

    Lesson 2: Content, Structure, Presentation, and Behavior Overview. Earlier in this course you learned to control the presentation of your web content using Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). In this lesson, you will learn how to control web page presentation using your web authoring software. Some web authoring software provides direct support for ...

  12. 18.5: Delivering Your Presentation as One

    The presentation preparation primarily focuses on your group's ability to develop a clear plan and execution of delivery. A delivery plan includes essential elements such as (1) purpose, (2) oral content, (3) dress, (4) room, (5) visuals, (6) delivery, and (7) rehearsal to ensure that the group presentation is both captivating and useful to ...

  13. 14.1: Organizing a Visual Presentation

    Follow these steps to create a presentation based on your ideas: Determine your purpose and identify the key ideas to present. Organize your ideas in an outline. Identify opportunities to incorporate visual or audio media, and create or locate these media aids. Rehearse your presentation in advance.

  14. Presentations

    Presentation assignments are often open to creative interpretation, which gives the group a lot of room to explore new techniques and add a personal touch. ... To help with anxiety and voice control, apply the following two strategies: Sit down: Lean forward and place your forearms on your knees. Take a slow, deep and noiseless breath through ...

  15. What Are Effective Presentation Skills (and How to Improve Them)

    Presentation skills are the abilities and qualities necessary for creating and delivering a compelling presentation that effectively communicates information and ideas. They encompass what you say, how you structure it, and the materials you include to support what you say, such as slides, videos, or images. You'll make presentations at various ...

  16. Assignment 3: PowerPoint Presentation Due Week 6 and worth 150

    Due Week 6 and worth 150 points. Develop a PowerPoint presentation (12-18 slides in length). It should include a title slide, an agenda slide, body content slides, a closing slide, and a References slide (if applicable). All slides count toward the required length. The content should focus on some aspect of social media use in the workplace.

  17. Chapt 16 & 17 Flashcards

    Chapt 17 Checklist. Plan your presentation visuals. -Make sure you and your message, not your visuals, remain the focus of your presentation. -Select your visuals carefully to support your message; use a combo of visuals if needed. -Review your plan for each visual to make sure it truly supports your message.

  18. QUIZLET presentation

    add images, copy and paste from another source / use Quizlet's built-in auto-define feature to speed up the creating process. Track your progress with 6 powerful study and game modes! Flashcards—Review your material, shuffle/randomize, or listen with audio. Speller—Type what you hear in this audio-powered study mode.

  19. Assignment: Primary Functions of Management

    Our text describes the four important and dynamic primary functions of management as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. In this assignment you will identify, describe, and differentiate the four functions. The following steps will help you prepare for your written assignment: Thoroughly read the Introduction to Management module.

  20. Lesson 14: Introduction to PowerPoint: Presentations Made Easy

    the tri-pane default PowerPoint view. tri-pane default 1. The pane on the left side of the screen shows either thumbnails oran outline of the presentation, depending on whether you select the Slides tab or the Outline tab. tri-pane default 2. The Slide pane on the right displays the currently selected slide in yourpresentation.

  21. IT 343 :

    Assignment 12 - Increase the Performance efficiency of the system (2).docx. IT 451 Lab Assignment 12: Increase the Performance efficiency of the system. You are a small business owner. Your website frequently experiences intermittent page Load issues, and users often report significant load times. To help solve this issue, Review

  22. COUC 698 : Counseling Practicum

    COUC 698 FINAL SELF-REFLECTION PAPER INSTRUCTIONS The Final Self-Reflection Assignment is an exercise intended to prompt you to engage in the process of reflective learning while demonstrating self-awareness, self-evaluation, and the ability to develop a. Solutions available. COUC 698. Liberty University.

  23. Advanced Formatting Flashcards

    Advanced Formatting. Which tasks can be completed using the Cell Style gallery? Check all that apply. A) choosing the look of a worksheet. B) making sure the data is accurate. C) controlling number formatting. D) applying relevant images. Click the card to flip 👆. A) choosing the look of a worksheet.