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Developing a Thesis

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Once you've read the story or novel closely, look back over your notes for patterns of questions or ideas that interest you. Have most of your questions been about the characters, how they develop or change?

For example: If you are reading Conrad's The Secret Agent , do you seem to be most interested in what the author has to say about society? Choose a pattern of ideas and express it in the form of a question and an answer such as the following: Question: What does Conrad seem to be suggesting about early twentieth-century London society in his novel The Secret Agent ? Answer: Conrad suggests that all classes of society are corrupt. Pitfalls: Choosing too many ideas. Choosing an idea without any support.

Once you have some general points to focus on, write your possible ideas and answer the questions that they suggest.

For example: Question: How does Conrad develop the idea that all classes of society are corrupt? Answer: He uses images of beasts and cannibalism whether he's describing socialites, policemen or secret agents.

To write your thesis statement, all you have to do is turn the question and answer around. You've already given the answer, now just put it in a sentence (or a couple of sentences) so that the thesis of your paper is clear.

For example: In his novel, The Secret Agent , Conrad uses beast and cannibal imagery to describe the characters and their relationships to each other. This pattern of images suggests that Conrad saw corruption in every level of early twentieth-century London society.

Now that you're familiar with the story or novel and have developed a thesis statement, you're ready to choose the evidence you'll use to support your thesis. There are a lot of good ways to do this, but all of them depend on a strong thesis for their direction.

For example: Here's a student's thesis about Joseph Conrad's The Secret Agent . In his novel, The Secret Agent , Conrad uses beast and cannibal imagery to describe the characters and their relationships to each other. This pattern of images suggests that Conrad saw corruption in every level of early twentieth-century London society. This thesis focuses on the idea of social corruption and the device of imagery. To support this thesis, you would need to find images of beasts and cannibalism within the text.
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Literary Analysis Essay Writing

Literary Analysis Essay Outline

Cathy A.

Literary Analysis Essay Outline - A Step By Step Guide

literary analysis essay outline

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How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay - A Step-by-Step Guide

Interesting Literary Analysis Essay Topics & Ideas

Have you ever felt stuck, looking at a blank page, wondering what a literary analysis essay is? You are not sure how to analyze a complicated book or story? 

Writing a literary analysis essay can be tough, even for people who really love books. The hard part is not only understanding the deeper meaning of the story but also organizing your thoughts and arguments in a clear way.

But don't worry!

In this easy-to-follow guide, we will talk about a key tool: The Literary Analysis Essay Outline. 

We'll provide you with the knowledge and tricks you need to structure your analysis the right way. In the end, you'll have the essential skills to understand and structure your literature analysis better.   So, let’s dive in!

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  • 1. How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay Outline?
  • 2. Literary Analysis Essay Format 
  • 3. Literary Analysis Essay Outline Example
  • 4. Literary Analysis Essay Topics 

How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay Outline?

An outline is a structure that you decide to give to your writing to make the audience understand your viewpoint clearly. When a writer gathers information on a topic, it needs to be organized to make sense.

When writing a literary analysis essay, its outline is as important as any part of it. For the text’s clarity and readability, an outline is drafted in the essay’s planning phase.

According to the basic essay outline, the following are the elements included in drafting an outline for the essay:

  • Introduction
  • Thesis statement
  • Body paragraphs

A detailed description of the literary analysis outline is provided in the following section.

Literary Analysis Essay Introduction

An introduction section is the first part of the essay. The introductory paragraph or paragraphs provide an insight into the topic and prepares the readers about the literary work.

A literary analysis essay introduction is based on three major elements:

Hook Statement: A hook statement is the opening sentence of the introduction. This statement is used to grab people’s attention. A catchy hook will make the introductory paragraph interesting for the readers, encouraging them to read the entire essay.

For example, in a literary analysis essay, “ Island Of Fear,” the writer used the following hook statement:

“As humans, we all fear something, and we deal with those fears in ways that match our personalities.”

Background Information: Providing background information about the chosen literature work in the introduction is essential. Present information related to the author, title, and theme discussed in the original text.

Moreover, include other elements to discuss, such as characters, setting, and the plot. For example:

“ In Lord of the Flies, William Golding shows the fears of Jack, Ralph, and Piggy and chooses specific ways for each to deal with his fears.”

Thesis Statement: A thesis statement is the writer’s main claim over the chosen piece of literature. 

A thesis statement allows your reader to expect the purpose of your writing. The main objective of writing a thesis statement is to provide your subject and opinion on the essay.

For example, the thesis statement in the “Island of Fear” is:

“...Therefore, each of the three boys reacts to fear in his own unique way.”

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Literary Analysis Essay Body Paragraphs

In body paragraphs, you dig deep into the text, show your insights, and build your argument.

 In this section, we'll break down how to structure and write these paragraphs effectively:

Topic sentence: A topic sentence is an opening sentence of the paragraph. The points that will support the main thesis statement are individually presented in each section.

For example:

“The first boy, Jack, believes that a beast truly does exist…”

Evidence: To support the claim made in the topic sentence, evidence is provided. The evidence is taken from the selected piece of work to make the reasoning strong and logical.

“...He is afraid and admits it; however, he deals with his fear of aggressive violence. He chooses to hunt for the beast, arms himself with a spear, and practice killing it: “We’re strong—we hunt! If there’s a beast, we’ll hunt it down! We’ll close in and beat and beat and beat—!”(91).”

Analysis: A literary essay is a kind of essay that requires a writer to provide his analysis as well.

The purpose of providing the writer’s analysis is to tell the readers about the meaning of the evidence.

“...He also uses the fear of the beast to control and manipulate the other children. Because they fear the beast, they are more likely to listen to Jack and follow his orders...”

Transition words: Transition or connecting words are used to link ideas and points together to maintain a logical flow.  Transition words  that are often used in a literary analysis essay are:

  • Furthermore
  • Later in the story
  • In contrast, etc.

“...Furthermore, Jack fears Ralph’s power over the group and Piggy’s rational thought. This is because he knows that both directly conflict with his thirst for absolute power...”

Concluding sentence: The last sentence of the body that gives a final statement on the topic sentence is the concluding sentence. It sums up the entire discussion held in that specific paragraph.

Here is a literary analysis paragraph example for you: 

Literary Essay Example Pdf

Literary Analysis Essay Conclusion

The last section of the essay is the conclusion part where the writer ties all loose ends of the essay together. To write appropriate and correct concluding paragraphs, add the following information:

  • State how your topic is related to the theme of the chosen work
  • State how successfully the author delivered the message
  • According to your perspective, provide a statement on the topic
  • If required, present predictions
  • Connect your conclusion to your introduction by restating the thesis statement.
  • In the end, provide an opinion about the significance of the work.

For example,

“ In conclusion, William Golding’s novel Lord of the Flies exposes the reader to three characters with different personalities and fears: Jack, Ralph, and Piggy. Each of the boys tries to conquer his fear in a different way. Fear is a natural emotion encountered by everyone, but each person deals with it in a way that best fits his/her individual personality.”

Literary Analysis Essay Format 

A literary analysis essay delves into the examination and interpretation of a literary work, exploring themes, characters, and literary devices. 

Below is a guide outlining the format for a structured and effective literary analysis essay.

or attention-grabbing opening statement. about the author and the literary work. that presents the main argument or purpose of your analysis.

Introduction to the literary work and its context. Analysis of the work's major themes and motifs. Examination of the author's writing style and literary techniques. In-depth analysis of specific literary devices used in the work. Discussion of character development, relationships, and character arcs. Exploration of the plot structure, conflicts, and resolutions. Analysis of the setting and its role in the narrative. Examination of the work's cultural, historical, or societal context. Evaluation of the work's impact on readers or its relevance today.

and summarize the key points of your analysis. or reflections on the work's significance and relevance. new ideas in the conclusion.

the literary work using the appropriate citation style (e.g., MLA, APA, Chicago). or references page listing all sources used.

Formatting Guidelines 

  • Use a legible font (e.g., Times New Roman or Arial) and set the font size to 12 points.
  • Double-space your essay, including the title, headings, and quotations.
  • Set one-inch margins on all sides of the page.
  • Indent paragraphs by 1/2 inch or use the tab key.
  • Page numbers, if required, should be in the header or footer and follow the specified formatting style.

Literary Analysis Essay Outline Example

To fully understand a concept in a writing world, literary analysis outline examples are important. This is to learn how a perfectly structured writing piece is drafted and how ideas are shaped to convey a message. 

The following are the best literary analysis essay examples to help you draft a perfect essay. 

AP Literary Analysis Essay Outline

Literary Analysis Essay Outline Middle School

High School Literary Analysis Essay Outline

Literary Analysis Essay Outline College (PDF)

Literary Analysis Essay Rubric (PDF)

Literary Analysis Essay Example Romeo & Juliet (PDF)

Literary Analysis Essay Topics 

Are you seeking inspiration for your next literary analysis essay? Here is a list of literary analysis essay topics for you:

  • The Theme of Alienation in "The Catcher in the Rye"
  • The Motif of Darkness in Shakespeare's Tragedies
  • The Psychological Complexity of Hamlet's Character
  • Analyzing the Narrator's Unreliable Perspective in "The Tell-Tale Heart"
  • The Role of Nature in William Wordsworth's Romantic Poetry
  • The Representation of Social Class in "To Kill a Mockingbird"
  • The Use of Irony in Mark Twain's "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn"
  • The Impact of Holden's Red Hunting Hat in the Novel
  • The Power of Setting in Gabriel García Márquez's "One Hundred Years of Solitude"
  • The Symbolism of the Conch Shell in William Golding's "Lord of the Flies"

Need more topics? Read our literary analysis essay topics blog!

All in all, writing a literary analysis essay can be tricky if it is your first attempt. Apart from analyzing the work, other elements like a topic and an accurate interpretation must draft this type of essay.

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We are a professional essay writing company that provides guidance and helps students to achieve their academic goals. Our qualified writers assist students by providing assistance at an affordable price. 

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How to Write an Essay Outline in 4 Steps

Lindsay Kramer

An essay outline is essentially an essay’s skeleton. It’s a text representation of an essay’s thesis and key supporting points. 

An essay outline serves multiple purposes, including helping its writer organize their thoughts before they start writing, giving readers a quick synopsis of the essay, and acting as a roadmap for the writer to follow as they work through their supporting paragraphs. Writing an essay outline is a fairly straightforward process, and in this blog post, we’ll walk you through it. 

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What is an essay outline?

An essay outline is an informal document that lists and orders the parts of an essay so the writer can stay on track and make sure they don’t miss anything. Because it’s informal, an outline is usually written in incomplete sentences, similar to notes. This can make it easier for you to determine the most effective way to transition between paragraphs and the ideal order in which to present your supporting paragraphs. 

Outlining is an important early stage in the writing process . It’s where you organize all the thoughts and insights you brainstormed into a neat roadmap to follow as you write. If you get stuck as you’re writing your essay, your outline is there to help you get back on track. 

It’s not uncommon for professors to require their students to submit essay outlines before getting started on their essays. Usually, this is so the professor can make sure each student is on the right track in terms of choosing an essay topic that has a sufficient amount of sources to reference, that it fits the parameters of the assignment, and that the student understands the assignment. 

Basic parts of an essay

Although every essay is unique, they all adhere to the same basic essay structure . Every essay starts with an introduction section, follows it with at least one body paragraph that supports the points made in the introduction, then wraps up with a conclusion section that reiterates the author’s thesis and summarizes the body paragraphs. 


The first section of your essay is called the introduction. As this name implies, this is where you introduce the topics you’ll be covering in your essay. It’s also where you state your thesis , the definitive sentence where you make your argument clear. 

Body sections

Your essay might only need two supporting paragraphs, or it could need four or five (or more). Unless your professor assigned a specific number of body paragraphs for your essay, how many of these you write is your call. 

If you’re supporting your thesis with multiple sources, a general rule to follow is one body paragraph per source cited. However, the type of essay you’re writing might require you to deviate from this. For example, in a compare-and-contrast essay, you’ll write one section (at least one paragraph long) for each comparison and contrast you make. In an analytical essay, you’ll write one body section for each point you make to support your thesis. 

Once you reach your conclusion , you’re almost there! This is the part of your essay where you wrap it up and summarize the points you made in your body paragraphs. If you have any final thoughts or perspectives you want to impress on your reader before they finish reading your essay, this is where you make them. 

4 steps for writing an essay outline

So you’re sitting at your desk, ready to write your outline. Great!

…how do you get started?

Just follow these four steps to craft an outline that makes the rest of the writing process simple. 

1 Determine your objective

Think about your thesis statement. You might not have the exact wording at this point, but you should have a general idea of the point you’ll make and defend in your essay. Having a clear objective enables you to work through your brainstorming notes and craft an outline that hits all the necessary points you need to support that objective. 

2 Filter out the fluff

When you brainstormed, you explored every possible avenue to go down in your writing and every potential piece of information to include. 

Now it’s time to go through your brainstorming notes and pick out the points that will most effectively achieve your goal for your essay. For each piece of information you jotted down, ask yourself “how does this prove my point?” If you can answer that question with a clear, thoughtful response, add it to your list of points to make in your essay. 

3 Identify the points you’ll make in each paragraph

Using the list of points you wrote down, identify the key arguments you’ll make in your essay. These will be your body sections. For example, in an argumentative essay about why your campus needs to install more water fountains, you might make points like: 

  • Providing water fountains helps students save money
  • Fountains reduce plastic waste
  • Readily available water can cut down heat exhaustion incidents

Jot down the facts, anecdotes, and statistics that support each of these arguments. For example, you might cite the number of disposable water bottles recovered from campus grounds last year in your section on how water fountains reduce plastic waste. These supporting points are part of your essay outline. 

4 Write your outline using a standard template

With your key topics and supporting points clearly defined, it’s time to actually write your outline. Using a template for the type of essay you’re writing (more on that in the next section), format your key points into a clear, organized frame that you’ll flesh out with content when you write your first draft. 

Essay outline examples

Although every outline follows the same general structure, there are a few key differences to keep in mind when you’re outlining different kinds of essays. Take a look at how these example outlines for various essay types are similar as well as where they differ: 

Argumentative essays

Here is an example outline argumentative essay :

Title: Italian Ice is a Superior Dessert to Ice Cream

  • Introduce the differences between Italian ice and ice cream, touch on how popular each is.
  • Thesis: Italian ice is a healthier, more refreshing, more environmentally friendly dessert than ice cream. 
  • Cite the average amount of calories in a serving of Italian ice vs. ice cream
  • Cite how Italian ice thus fits more easily into most consumers’ daily caloric allotment
  • Discuss the benefits of consuming vegan vs. animal-sourced products
  • Discuss how Italian ice is vegan, making it accessible to both vegans and non-vegans and a healthier, more environmentally conscious choice for all
  • Because of the lack of dairy, Italian ice is a more refreshing treat than ice cream on a hot day
  • Discuss anecdotes about dairy making consumers feel hotter and not refreshed
  • Reiterate why Italian ice is a better dessert than ice cream and summarize supporting points.

Admissions essays

Take a look at this admissions essay outline: 

Title: Arigato, Sato Sensei

  • My Japanese teacher was the most influential teacher I had in high school because she taught me more than just a language—she taught me how language shapes perspective. 
  • Thesis: Choosing to study Japanese in high school changed my perspective on myself, my community, and my role in society 
  • Discuss how I struggled in Japanese class and wanted to give up
  • State how Sato Sensei encouraged me to keep trying instead of changing to another language
  • Learning Japanese was more than memorizing vocabulary and copying hiragana and katakana; it’s understanding Japanese cultural perspectives and concepts versus Western ones
  • How Japanese language skills enabled me to succeed during my summer abroad
  • How I understood cultural nuances through my understanding of the language
  • With the perspective I developed as an American student who studied Japanese, I’m well-equipped to succeed as an international business major. 

Persuasive essays

Here’s an example of a persuasive essay outline: 

Title: We Need More Security Cameras in the Student Parking Deck

  • Vehicle break-ins are far too common on campus
  • Thesis: The current level of parking deck security is insufficient
  • State car break-in statistics and any related stats, like the average cost of repairs to broken-into vehicles and value of goods stolen
  • Discuss the intangible value of increased security with quotes and anecdotes
  • Cite statistics on how other campuses reduced break-ins by installing more security cameras
  • State the actual cost of installing sufficient security
  • Summarize the points made and emphasize how community safety should be a top priority for campus administration. Then, reiterate how more security cameras in the parking deck would improve safety. 

Personal essays

Here is an outline example for a personal essay :

Title: The Two Best Birthdays of my Life

  • Introducing your feelings about birthdays and how you like to celebrate yours
  • Thesis: The two best birthdays of my life were my 17th and 22nd
  • I got my driver’s license and drove to my first concert with my best friends
  • I still have the ticket stub and wristband from that night
  • At first, I thought everybody had forgotten my birthday. I was devastated
  • Then, my siblings surprised me by traveling six hours to pick me up and take me to the art exhibit I’d been wanting to see
  • My 17th and 22nd birthdays were particularly meaningful because of the points cited above. 
  • Perhaps finish with a parting thought on looking forward to more great birthday celebrations

 Outlining is just one step to great writing

Once you’re finished writing your outline, follow the rest of the writing process steps to complete your essay. 

When it’s time to edit your work, Grammarly can help you polish your draft into a perfectly publishable piece of writing. Grammarly catches spelling mistakes, grammar errors, and gives you feedback on all the tones present in your writing to help you make any necessary adjustments to strike a clear, consistent tone that accurately communicates exactly what you need to say. 

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Essay Writing Guide

Essay Outline

Last updated on: Jun 28, 2024

A Complete Essay Outline - Guidelines and Format

By: Nova A.

13 min read

Reviewed By: Melisa C.

Published on: Jan 15, 2019

Essay Outline

To write an effective essay, you need to create a clear and well-organized essay outline. An essay outline will shape the essay’s entire content and determine how successful the essay will be.

In this blog post, we'll be going over the basics of essay outlines and provide a template for you to follow. We will also include a few examples so that you can get an idea about how these outlines look when they are put into practice.

Essay writing is not easy, but it becomes much easier with time, practice, and a detailed essay writing guide. Once you have developed your outline, everything else will come together more smoothly.

The key to success in any area is preparation - take the time now to develop a solid outline and then write your essays!

So, let’s get started!

Essay Outline

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What is an Essay Outline?

An essay outline is your essay plan and a roadmap to essay writing. It is the structure of an essay you are about to write. It includes all the main points you have to discuss in each section along with the thesis statement.

Like every house has a map before it is constructed, the same is the importance of an essay outline. You can write an essay without crafting an outline, but you may miss essential information, and it is more time-consuming.

Once the outline is created, there is no chance of missing any important information. Also, it will help you to:

  • Organize your thoughts and ideas.
  • Understand the information flow.
  • Never miss any crucial information or reference.
  • Finish your work faster.

These are the reasons if someone asks you why an essay outline is needed. Now there are some points that must be kept in mind before proceeding to craft an essay outline.

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Prewriting Process of Essay Outline

Your teacher may ask you to submit your essay outline before your essay. Therefore, you must know the preliminary guidelines that are necessary before writing an essay outline.

Here are the guidelines:

  • You must go through your assignments’ guidelines carefully.
  • Understand the purpose of your assignment.
  • Know your audience.
  • Mark the important point while researching your topic data.
  • Select the structure of your essay outline; whether you are going to use a decimal point bullet or a simple one.

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How to Write an Essay Outline in 4 Steps

Creating an essay outline is a crucial step in crafting a well-structured and organized piece of writing. Follow these four simple steps to create an effective outline:

Step 1: Understand the Topic

To begin, thoroughly grasp the essence of your essay topic. 

Break it down into its key components and identify the main ideas you want to convey. This step ensures you have a clear direction and focus for your essay.

Step 2: Brainstorm and Gather Ideas

Let your creativity flow and brainstorm ideas related to your topic. 

Jot down key pieces of information, arguments, and supporting evidence that will strengthen your essay's overall message. Consider different perspectives and potential counterarguments to make your essay well-rounded.

Step 3: Organize Your Thoughts

Now it's time to give structure to your ideas. 

Arrange your main points in a logical order, starting with an attention-grabbing introduction, followed by body paragraphs that present your arguments. 

Finally, tie everything together with a compelling conclusion. Remember to use transitional phrases to create smooth transitions between sections.

Step 4: Add Depth with Subpoints

To add depth and clarity to your essay, incorporate subpoints under each main point. 

These subpoints provide more specific details, evidence, or examples that support your main ideas. They help to further strengthen your arguments and make your essay more convincing.

By following these four steps - you'll be well on your way to creating a clear and compelling essay outline.

Essay Outline Format

It is an easy way for you to write your thoughts in an organized manner. It may seem unnecessary and unimportant, but it is not.

It is one of the most crucial steps for essay writing as it shapes your entire essay and aids the writing process.

An essay outline consists of three main parts:

1. Introduction

The introduction body of your essay should be attention-grabbing. It should be written in such a manner that it attracts the reader’s interest. It should also provide background information about the topic for the readers.

You can use a dramatic tone to grab readers’ attention, but it should connect the audience to your thesis statement.

Here are some points without which your introduction paragraph is incomplete.

To attract the reader with the first few opening lines, we use a hook statement. It helps engage the reader and motivates them to read further. There are different types of hook sentences ranging from quotes, rhetorical questions to anecdotes and statistics, and much more.

Are you struggling to come up with an interesting hook? View these hook examples to get inspired!

A thesis statement is stated at the end of your introduction. It is the most important statement of your entire essay. It summarizes the purpose of the essay in one sentence.

The thesis statement tells the readers about the main theme of the essay, and it must be strong and clear. It holds the entire crux of your essay.

Need help creating a strong thesis statement? Check out this guide on thesis statements and learn to write a statement that perfectly captures your main argument!

2. Body Paragraphs

The body paragraphs of an essay are where all the details and evidence come into play. This is where you dive deep into the argument, providing explanations and supporting your ideas with solid evidence. 

If you're writing a persuasive essay, these paragraphs will be the powerhouse that convinces your readers. Similarly, in an argumentative essay, your body paragraphs will work their magic to sway your audience to your side.

Each paragraph should have a topic sentence and no more than one idea. A topic sentence is the crux of the contents of your paragraph. It is essential to keep your reader interested in the essay.

The topic sentence is followed by the supporting points and opinions, which are then justified with strong evidence.

3. Conclusion

When it comes to wrapping up your essay, never underestimate the power of a strong conclusion. Just like the introduction and body paragraphs, the conclusion plays a vital role in providing a sense of closure to your topic. 

To craft an impactful conclusion, it's crucial to summarize the key points discussed in the introduction and body paragraphs. You want to remind your readers of the important information you shared earlier. But keep it concise and to the point. Short, powerful sentences will leave a lasting impression.

Remember, your conclusion shouldn't drag on. Instead, restate your thesis statement and the supporting points you mentioned earlier. And here's a pro tip: go the extra mile and suggest a course of action. It leaves your readers with something to ponder or reflect on.

5 Paragraph Essay Outline Structure

An outline is an essential part of the writing as it helps the writer stay focused. A typical 5 paragraph essay outline example is shown here. This includes:

  • State the topic
  • Thesis statement
  • Introduction
  • Explanation
  • A conclusion that ties to the thesis
  • Summary of the essay
  • Restate the thesis statement

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Essay Outline Template

The outline of the essay is the skeleton that you will fill out with the content. Both outline and relevant content are important for a good essay. The content you will add to flesh out the outline should be credible, relevant, and interesting.

The outline structure for the essay is not complex or difficult. No matter which type of essay you write, you either use an alphanumeric structure or a decimal structure for the outline.

Below is an outline sample that you can easily follow for your essay.

Hook/Attention Grabber
Background Information
Thesis Statement

Topic Sentence
Supporting Detail 1
Supporting Detail 2
Supporting Detail 3
Transition to the next paragraph

Topic Sentence
Supporting Detail 1
Supporting Detail 2
Supporting Detail 3
Transition to the next paragraph

Topic Sentence
Supporting Detail 1
Supporting Detail 2
Supporting Detail 3
Transition to the next paragraph

Restate Thesis Statement
Summary of Main Points
Concluding Thoughts

Essay Outline Sample

Essay Outline Examples

An essay outline template should follow when you start writing the essay. Every writer should learn how to write an outline for every type of essay and research paper.

Essay outline 4th grade

Essay outline 5th grade

Essay outline high school

Essay outline college

Given below are essay outline examples for different types of essay writing.

Argumentative Essay Outline

An  argumentative essay  is a type of essay that shows both sides of the topic that you are exploring. The argument that presents the basis of the essay should be created by providing evidence and supporting details.

Persuasive Essay Outline

A  persuasive essay  is similar to an argumentative essay. Your job is to provide facts and details to create the argument. In a persuasive essay, you convince your readers of your point of view.

Compare and Contrast Essay Outline

A  compare and contrast essay  explains the similarities and differences between two things. While comparing, you should focus on the differences between two seemingly similar objects. While contrasting, you should focus on the similarities between two different objects.

Narrative Essay Outline

A narrative essay is written to share a story. Normally, a narrative essay is written from a personal point of view in an essay. The basic purpose of the narrative essay is to describe something creatively.

Expository Essay Outline

An  expository essay  is a type of essay that explains, analyzes, and illustrates something for the readers. An expository essay should be unbiased and entirely based on facts. Be sure to use academic resources for your research and cite your sources.

Analytical Essay Outline

An  analytical essay  is written to analyze the topic from a critical point of view. An analytical essay breaks down the content into different parts and explains the topic bit by bit.

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline

A rhetorical essay is written to examine the writer or artist’s work and develop a great essay. It also includes the discussion.

Cause and Effect Essay Outline

A  cause and effect essay  describes why something happens and examines the consequences of an occurrence or phenomenon. It is also a type of expository essay.

Informative Essay Outline

An  informative essay  is written to inform the audience about different objects, concepts, people, issues, etc.

The main purpose is to respond to the question with a detailed explanation and inform the target audience about the topic.

Synthesis Essay Outline

A  synthesis essay  requires the writer to describe a certain unique viewpoint about the issue or topic. Create a claim about the topic and use different sources and information to prove it.

Literary Analysis Essay Outline

A  literary analysis essay  is written to analyze and examine a novel, book, play, or any other piece of literature. The writer analyzes the different devices such as the ideas, characters, plot, theme, tone, etc., to deliver his message.

Definition Essay Outline

A  definition essay  requires students to pick a particular concept, term, or idea and define it in their own words and according to their understanding.

Descriptive Essay Outline

A  descriptive essay  is a type of essay written to describe a person, place, object, or event. The writer must describe the topic so that the reader can visualize it using their five senses.

Evaluation Essay Outline

Problem Solution Essay Outline

In a problem-solution essay, you are given a problem as a topic and you have to suggest multiple solutions on it.

Scholarship Essay Outline

A  scholarship essay  is required at the time of admission when you are applying for a scholarship. Scholarship essays must be written in a way that should stand alone to help you get a scholarship.

Reflective Essay Outline

A reflective essay  is written to express your own thoughts and point of view regarding a specific topic.

Getting started on your essay? Give this comprehensive essay writing guide a read to make sure you write an effective essay!

With this complete guide, now you understand how to create an outline for your essay successfully. However, if you still can’t write an effective essay, then the best option is to consult a professional academic writing service.

Essay writing is a dull and boring task for some people. So why not get some help instead of wasting your time and effort?  5StarEssays.com is here to help you. All your  do my essay for me  requests are managed by professional essay writers.

Place your order now, and our team of expert academic writers will help you.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the three types of outlines.

Here are the three types of essay outline;

  • Working outline
  • Speaking outline
  • Full-sentence outline

All three types are different from each other and are used for different purposes.

What does a full-sentence outline look like?

A full sentence outline contains full sentences at each level of the essay’s outline. It is similar to an alphanumeric outline and it is a commonly used essay outline.

What is a traditional outline format?

A traditional essay outline begins with writing down all the important points in one place and listing them down and adding sub-topics to them. Besides, it will also include evidence and proof that you will use to back your arguments.

What is the benefit of using a traditional outline format and an informal outline format?

A traditional outline format helps the students in listing down all the important details in one palace while an informal outline will help you coming up with new ideas and highlighting important points

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As a Digital Content Strategist, Nova Allison has eight years of experience in writing both technical and scientific content. With a focus on developing online content plans that engage audiences, Nova strives to write pieces that are not only informative but captivating as well.

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Creating a clear and organized essay is not easy, but making an outline can help. By arranging your ideas in a logical and coherent way, an essay outline can guide you in effectively structuring your essay. 

Whether you’re working on a school or college assignment, take the time to create an outline. It can help you overcome the challenges of organizing your thoughts while writing. In this article, we’ll take a look at how to create an essay outline with the help of some useful examples and a downloadable template.

What is an essay outline?

An outline acts as a blueprint for your essay, presenting the structure and content of each paragraph and showing how they connect. By creating an outline, you can streamline the writing process and minimize the need for revisions. It can also help you develop strong points to support your thesis statement .

Typically, an outline is created after establishing a working thesis statement and gathering relevant information. The collected information is then organized into a logical flow that can be expanded into a structured essay.

Why is it important to create an essay outline?

An essay outline not only gives structure to your essay but also helps effectively link its parts. It helps create a logical flow for your essay and also helps identify its primary components. Let’s take a look at this in detail.

1. Sets a logical order

To create a well-structured and impactful essay, the arrangement of information is key. Creating an essay outline makes it easier to organize bits of information from general to specific. 

Start off by creating a broad thesis statement or central idea. Then move on to providing examples or pieces of information that support this statement or elaborate on it. This method also provides a comprehensive overview of your essay and helps identify any missing bits of information.

2. Generates greater impact

The primary goal of your essay is to effectively present information that supports your thesis statement. If your essay is haphazardly structured, the message of the thesis statement can get lost.

In order to present a coherent message, determine the important bits of information that best support your thesis statement and organize them logically. Then elaborate on these bits to create a flow. This not only creates a greater impact but also makes your final essay more convincing.

3. Leads to smoother transitions

Transitions are the bridges that connect your ideas and ensure that your argument flows smoothly. However, creating smooth transitions from one point to another can be quite challenging.

A college essay outline helps you identify where you need to include transitions and what type of transition you should use to connect your ideas effectively. Creating smooth, logical, and cohesive transitions is crucial in ensuring that readers can easily follow your train of thought and grasp your argument. 

How to write an essay outline

After conducting all the necessary research, it is time to narrow down the central idea of your essay. Make sure that the scope of your idea is neither too broad nor too narrow. 

Select the main bits of information that elaborate on this central idea and organize them in a logical manner. Then provide specific examples to back them up. Let’s take a detailed look at these steps. 

1. Figure out the central message or the thesis statement of your essay.

Picking out a central idea or generic point for your essay can help create a base you can elaborate upon. 

You can start with a broad idea or stance and then research the specific bits of information that support this idea and provide more information on it. 

2. Identify the main points or arguments.

After collecting the necessary information to elaborate on your central idea, identify the broad points that give it substance. 

These points will form the headings of the essay. They should be broad enough to cover major themes, but specific enough to provide a clear focus for each section.

3. Organize your headings.

Decide the logical flow of your essay and arrange your headings in an organized manner.

It is crucial to have obvious starting and ending points, but the body can be organized in a way you consider to be the most impactful. Depending on the type of essay, your headings can be arranged chronologically, on the basis of importance, or from general to specific.

4. Provide examples and evidence to support the headings.

Once the headings are created and organized, provide statistics, anecdotes, and examples to back them up. These specific pieces of information can be elaborated upon while writing your first draft.

You can use this general essay outline format to create your own 

Essay outline template

To help you write a logical, well-structured, impactful essay, we have developed this fool-proof, comprehensive essay outline template. It will help you categorize all your essential information into well-structured, organized headings and subheadings.

The template includes an introduction, three body paragraphs, an optional paragraph for a counter-argument, and a conclusion. Under each of these headings, there are relevant subheadings that are applicable to all types of essays.  

The template uses an alphanumeric format, with Roman numerals for the headings and capital letters for the subheadings.

Download Free Outline Essay Template

Essay outline examples   .

Essays are highly versatile pieces of writing. They include various types, such as persuasive essays, compare and contrast essays, analytical essays, and cause-and-effect essays. 

But most of these essay types are a combination or a derivation of these four main types of essays. They include narrative, descriptive, argumentative, and expository essays. 

Each of these essays serves a different purpose and is structured differently. Let’s understand the purpose of each of these essay types with the help of relevant essay outline examples:

1. Narrative essay outline

A narrative essay outline is a highly personalized outline that reflects your unique experiences, feelings, and observations. 

The goal of this outline is to tell an impactful story with the help of vivid descriptions and sensory details that engage the reader’s attention.

Narrative essay outline example

Let us better understand the narrative essay outline with the help of an example. The following example is a personal narrative about growing up as an immigrant child.

I. Introduction

A. A vivid description of the moment I found out I was moving to a new country.

B. Brief explanation of my background and reasons for immigrating.

C. Thesis statement: The challenges and opportunities I faced as an immigrant in a new country.

A. Struggles in adjusting to a new culture.

1. Language barriers I faced in school and everyday life.

2. Differences in cultural norms and expectations.

B. Navigating a new education system

1. Differences in teaching styles and expectations.

2. Adjusting to a new curriculum and grading system.

C. Finding a sense of belonging

1. Challenges in making friends and building relationships.

2. Coping with homesickness and missing family and friends.

III. Conclusion

A. Reflection on my journey as an immigrant

1. Lessons learned and personal growth.

2. Significance of the experience.

B. Acknowledgment of my resilience and determination.

1. Overcoming challenges and achieving success.

2. Encouragement for others facing similar challenges.

C. Memorable closing statement related to my journey.

2. Argumentative essay outline

An argumentative essay outline requires you to take a clear stance on a topic and provide strong evidence to support it. 

The goal of this outline is to convince the reader to see your point of view on a controversial topic.

Argumentative essay outline example

The following example shows us how the internet is beneficial to the mental development of school children. It establishes the internet to be a valuable resource for children.

A. A surprising statistic or fact about children and their use of the internet.

B. Brief explanation of the prevalence of the internet in modern society and its impact on children.

C. Thesis statement: Despite concerns about safety and privacy, the internet is a valuable resource for children due to its educational opportunities, communication tools, and access to diverse perspectives.

A. Education opportunities.

 1. Access to information and resources that may not be available in traditional classroom settings.

2. Interactive tools and games that can reinforce learning and engage children in new ways.

B. Communication tools

1. Social media and messaging platforms that allow children to connect with peers and mentors.

2. Online forums and discussion groups that foster collaboration and problem-solving skills.

C. Exposure to diverse perspectives

1. Access to a variety of viewpoints and perspectives from around the world.

2. Exposure to different cultures and ways of thinking can foster empathy and understanding.

III. Counterarguments and Rebuttal

A. Potential safety concerns and risks associated with internet use

1. Explanation of safety measures and precautions that can mitigate these risks.

2. Rebuttal of the idea that the risks outweigh the benefits.

B. Potential negative effects on cognitive and social development

1. Explanation of the positive effects of internet use on cognitive development and social skills.

2. Rebuttal of the idea that the internet is inherently harmful to children.

IV. Conclusion

A. Restatement of thesis statement and main points of the argument.

B. Reflection on the importance of the internet as a valuable resource for children.

C. Final thoughts and call to action for readers to embrace the benefits of internet use for children.

3. Expository essay outline

An expository essay outline requires you to provide a detailed overview of a subject from all angles. It is used to test your knowledge of a particular subject.

The purpose of this essay outline is to inform, explain, or describe a topic or idea, rather than to persuade the reader or share personal opinions. 

This type of essay is often used in academic settings, such as in writing assignments, research papers, or even textbooks.

Expository essay outline example

The following example provides us with information on SONAR technology, its uses, its impact on the environment, as well as its benefits. 

A. A brief explanation of the significance of SONAR and its impact on underwater navigation and detection.

B. A definition of SONAR and its origins, and the history of its development and uses.

C. Thesis statement: This essay will provide a detailed overview of the use of SONAR technology, its applications, and its impact on various fields.

A. Explanation of SONAR technology

  • Basic principles of SONAR.
  • Types of SONAR and how they work.

B. Applications of SONAR technology

1. Military applications, including submarine detection and mine detection.

2. Commercial applications, including underwater mapping and exploration, and marine life observation.

C. Advantages and disadvantages of SONAR technology

1. Advantages, such as accuracy and range.

2. Disadvantages, such as interference and environmental impact.

A. Safety and environmental concerns

1. Explanation of the measures taken to minimize the environmental impact of SONAR technology.

2. Rebuttal of the idea that the benefits of SONAR technology are outweighed by its environmental impact.

B. Potential misuse or abuse of SONAR technology

1. Explanation of regulations and laws governing the use of SONAR technology.

2. Rebuttal of the idea that the potential misuse of SONAR technology justifies limiting its applications.

B. Reflection on the significance of SONAR technology and its impact on various fields.

C. Final thoughts and call to action for readers to learn more about SONAR technology and its applications.

4. Descriptive essay outline

A descriptive essay outline requires you to create a detailed and sensory-rich description of a person, place, object, event, or experience. 

The goal is to provide the reader with a visceral experience that engages their senses and imagination.

Descriptive essay outline example

The following example provides a highly immersive experience and uses multiple sensory descriptors to describe the summers spent by the writer at their grandmother’s farm.

A. Description of a typical summer day at grandma’s farm.

B. Brief overview of the location and purpose of the farm.

C. Thesis statement: Summers spent at grandma’s farm were some of the most memorable and enjoyable times of my childhood, thanks to the idyllic setting and the rich sensory experiences it provided.

II. Body Paragraph 1: The Scenery

A. Topic sentence: The farm was located in a picturesque rural area surrounded by rolling hills and green pastures.

B. Sensory details:

1. Visual: Describe the lush greenery, the colorful flowers, and the endless expanse of blue sky.

2. Auditory: Mention the sound of the chirping birds, the rustling leaves, and the occasional mooing of cows.

3. Olfactory: Describe the fragrant smell of fresh hay and the earthy aroma of the soil.

4. Tactile: Describe the feeling of the warm sun on the skin and the softness of the grass underfoot.

III. Body Paragraph 2: The Activities

A. Topic sentence: The farm provided numerous activities and tasks that kept me busy and engaged throughout the day.

1. Visual: Describe the sight of the cows grazing, the chickens clucking, and the horses trotting.

2. Auditory: Mention the sound of the milking machine, the creaking of the barn doors, and the whinnying of the horses.

3. Olfactory: Describe the smell of the freshly baked pies, the wood smoke from the bonfire, and the scent of the freshly cut grass.

4. Tactile: Describe the feeling of the cow’s rough tongue licking my hand, the warmth of the freshly laid eggs, and the rough texture of the hay bales.

IV. Body Paragraph 3: The People

A. Topic sentence: The farm was a family affair, and spending time with my grandmother and other relatives was a highlight of the summer.

1. Visual: Describe the sight of my grandmother cooking in the kitchen, my cousins running through the fields, and my uncles fixing machinery.

2. Auditory: Mention the sound of laughter and conversation around the dinner table, the chatter of family members working together, and the clinking of dishes.

3. Olfactory: Describe the smell of home-cooked meals, the familiar scents of family members, and the aroma of freshly brewed coffee.

4. Tactile: Describe the feeling of hugs from family members, the rough texture of my grandfather’s hand, and the warmth of a family embrace.

V. Conclusion

A. Restate thesis: Summers spent at grandma’s farm were truly unforgettable, filled with vivid sensory experiences and cherished memories.

B. Summarize main points: Recap the main sensory details and experiences shared in the essay.

C. Final thoughts: Reflect on the impact of the farm on the writer’s life and express gratitude for the memories made there.

Here are some related articles that you might find interesting:

  • How to Write an Essay in 8 Simple Steps

Frequently Asked Questions

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Research Paper: A step-by-step guide: 3. Thesis Statement & Outline

  • 1. Getting Started
  • 2. Topic Ideas
  • 3. Thesis Statement & Outline
  • 4. Appropriate Sources
  • 5. Search Techniques
  • 6. Taking Notes & Documenting Sources
  • 7. Evaluating Sources
  • 8. Citations & Plagiarism
  • 9. Writing Your Research Paper


About Thesis Statements

Qualities of a thesis statement.

Thesis statements:

  • state the subject matter and main ideas of a paper.
  • appear in the first paragraph and announces what you will discuss in your paper.
  • define the scope and focus of your essay, and tells your reader what to expect.  
  • are not a simple factual statement.  It is an assertion that states your claims and that you can prove with evidence.
  • should be the product of research and your own critical thinking.
  • can be very helpful in constructing an outline for your essay; for each point you make, ask yourself whether it is relevant to the thesis.

Steps you can use to create a thesis statement

1. Start out with the main topic and focus of your essay.

youth gangs + prevention and intervention programs

2. Make a claim or argument in one sentence.  It can be helpful to start with a question which you then turn into an argument

Can prevention and intervention programs stop youth gang activities?  How?  ►►►  "Prevention and intervention programs can stop youth gang activities by giving teens something else to do."

3. Revise the sentence by using specific terms.

"Early prevention programs in schools are the most effective way to prevent youth gang involvement by giving teens good activities that offer a path to success."

4. Further revise the sentence to cover the scope of your essay and make a strong statement.

"Among various prevention and intervention efforts that have been made to deal with the rapid growth of youth gangs, early school-based prevention programs are the most effective way to prevent youth gang involvement, which they do by giving teens meaningful activities that offer pathways to achievement and success."

5. Keep your thesis statement flexible and revise it as needed. In the process of researching and writing, you may find new information or refine your understanding of the topic.

You can view this short video for more tips on how to write a clear thesis statement.

An outline is the skeleton of your essay, in which you list the arguments and subtopics in a logical order. A good outline is an important element in writing a good paper. An outline helps to target your research areas, keep you within the scope without going off-track, and it can also help to keep your argument in good order when writing the essay.  Once your outline is in good shape, it is much easier to write your paper; you've already done most of the thinking, so you just need to fill in the outline with a paragraph for each point.

To write an outline: The most common way to write an outline is the list format.  List all the major topics and subtopics with the key points that support them. Put similar topics and points together and arrange them in a logical order.    Include an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. 

A list outline should arrange the main points or arguments in a hierarchical structure indicated by Roman numerals for main ideas (I, II, III...), capital letters for subtopics (A, B, C...), Arabic numerals for details (1,2,3...), and lower-case letters for fine details if needed (a,b,c...). This helps keep things organized.  

Here is a shortened example of an outline:

Introduction: background and thesis statement

I. First topic

1. Supporting evidence 2. Supporting evidence

II. Second Topic

III. Third Topic

I. Summarize the main points of your paper II. Restate your thesis in different words III. Make a strong final statement

You can see examples of a few different kinds of outlines and get more help at the Purdue OWL .

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How to Write Literary Fiction in 6 Steps

Literary fiction can be a slippery genre to write within, seeing how it avoids easy definitions . In many ways, that’s a good thing: multifaceted and expansive, it’s probably the category of books that contains the widest range of stories, and the one readers always approach with a readiness for surprise.

To make the most of writing in this fun genre, we’ve assembled 6 simple steps you can follow.

5hr1nEz9In0 Video Thumb

1. Start with a topic you wish to explore

The first step is simple: all you need is to identify a theme or topic that interests you. At this stage, your “topic” can be universal or very specific. There’s no need to transpose this topic into a particular character and a situation yet — just think about some of the issues that you find curious or feel strongly about.  These could include aspects of the human experience or matters related to society and social structures. 

To give you a few examples of some works and their overall themes:

  • Motherhood — Mieko Kawakami’s Breasts and Eggs , where the protagonist considers accepting a sperm donation and becoming a single mother;
  • Grief — Raymond Carver’s ‘A Small, Good Thing,’ where a mother is faced with her son’s sudden unexpected death;
  • Power — Hilary Mantel’s Wolf Hall , which charts Thomas Cromwell’s rise to prominence in the Tudor times.

2. Identify the core of your theme or idea

How to write literary fiction | Book covers of titles that have been edited by Reedsy editors

You don’t need to have a thesis to expound upon in your story — Les Misérables would be tragically reduced if you just condensed it into “stealing is bad,” and many works of literary fiction are similarly more complex than a single statement. Ideally, though, your work will be saying s omething . 

Take Ruth Ozeki’s A Tale for the Time Being , for example. It tells the parallel stories of two people: one a schoolgirl in Japan, the other a Japanese-American author living in British Columbia. The story is about identity, as it shows the two characters searching for some kind of meaning in their relationships and their place in the world.   

Avoid moralistic lessons

Whether you overtly show your personal beliefs to your readers or let them draw their own conclusions, it is still helpful for you as a writer to figure out how you feel about certain issues. (That may happen as you write, which is not an issue, as you can edit your work later on.) If you do have clear feelings on the subject at hand, however, be careful not to write a story that falls flat by offering a one-sided moralistic “lesson.” Instead, think about how your narrative can show the nuanced complexities of an issue. Allow contradictions to exist in your work, without worrying about teaching the reader the right way. No one likes to be patronized.

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Need some more guidance? Check out our free course 'How to Craft a Killer Short Story' — it was created by Laura Mae Isaacman , an editor who has worked with Joyce Carol Oates and other luminaries of the short fiction world.



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3. Ground your idea in a specific situation…

Your next step is to come up with a specific character in a specific situation that hinges on your central theme. Say you want to write about “the immigrant experience.” You don’t need to come up with an astonishing hot take on what it’s like to live away from home, but you can depict a specific person’s experience in a moving, relatable, or entertaining way if you just commit to some detail. 

Here are a few more ideas for developing a plot based on your theme:

Conduct a fictional experiment

Because literary fiction stories are very commonly character-driven, you can use a story as a space to conduct a hypothetical experiment. 

  • If X and Y personalities are brought together in Z circumstances, what will happen?
  • How do different characters respond to the same problem?
  • How would person A react if person B acted in a certain way? 

A book that does this well is Bryan Washington’s Memorial , which chronicles the changes in a romantic relationship, when one of the two young men must go to Japan to visit his ill father. The book tests their romance with a newly-created distance — tracing their shifting dynamic as they’re both forced to open themselves up in new ways.

Don’t be afraid to be weird

Literary fiction is home to a lot of very, very strange fiction, where writers can have fun and embrace bizarre ideas. When writing literary fiction, listen to any whimsical or wacky ideas that come to you, whether your protagonist develops a substance abuse relationship with lip balm, turns into a lamp, or starts to speak in ways no one understands.

how to write a fiction essay thesis and outline

One recent example of ‘weird’ literary fiction is Suyaka Murata’s Earthlings , which tells the story of Natsuki — a woman convinced she’s an alien and trying to navigate societal pressures while retaining her personal integrity. It’s an utterly bizarre story that pushes past what’s considered acceptable behavior and makes readers see the standards for “acceptability” in a new light.

4. Or filter it through a particular character’s experience

Literary fiction is usually character-driven, and characters are best explored when an event takes place and reveals the finer textures of their personality. Though stories about stasis, where nothing happens, are acceptable in literary fiction, you’ll find that events help move your story forward, and give you the trigger needed to unpack your characters.

In literary fiction that overlaps with genre fiction, these events tend towards the dramatic, like the rise of a totalitarian government (think Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale ), significant historical events (Thomas Cromwell’s rise to power in Hilary Mantel’s Wolf Hall ) or fantastical elements like the widespread amnesia in Kazuo Ishiguro’s The Buried Giant .

how to write a fiction essay thesis and outline

In experimental, realist, or contemporary forms of literary fiction, the event can either be a small, otherwise insignificant moment, or a major life event. It all counts: an offhand comment made by a stranger, a death or birth, or an emotionally poignant moment like dropping off your child at nursery for the first time.

You don’t need a likeable protagonist

In genre fiction, the reader often roots for the main character: they want to see the unlucky-in-love writer find romance, the detective solve the crime, or the teenager to finally grow up. But flawed characters are far more common in literary fiction — where stories sometimes function as character studies trying to understand how a character has come to be a certain way, or to simply observe or satirize the breadth of human behavior. 

How to write literary fiction | Gary Budden

A great example of a flawed character can be found in Eliza Clark’s Boy Parts , where Irina, an explicit photographer of random Newcastle men, falls into a self-destructive and violent spiral. She’s not a character to idolize, but one whose crazy downfall readers find compelling.

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David Foster Wallace’s short story collection Brief Interviews with Hideous Men also features flawed characters: here, fictional interviews reveal the egocentric, cruel behavior of certain men. The interview format singles out their words, which would otherwise be lost in a story merging plot with dialogue.

When writing literary fiction, set yourself free from the need to create benevolent, likeable figures: saintly figures are unrealistic and basic anyway, so your readers will thank you for more nuanced characterization.


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4. Consider how you might tell your story in unexpected ways

Literary fiction is associated with unusual and interesting approaches to storytelling — fractured chronology, unusual media, strange POV choices... 

Think about it this way: poets are used to paying attention to the way they present their ideas, weighing up the limitations and opportunities residing in each form — literary fiction borrows this flexibility from poetry, allowing you to be wildly experimental (or wildly traditional). Consider creative formal approaches that might help you illustrate your points: you can tell your story in future tense, in HTML, in texts, or start in medias res… As long as your story’s final form is an intentional choice and not a random afterthought, anything goes.

Don’t go crazy for no reason

how to write a fiction essay thesis and outline

Don’t go wild for the sake of it. There should always be a reason behind a strange formal choice: the form needs to tie in with the content. Consider the novel  little scratch  by Rebecca Watson, for example. While the story is told in experimental, stream-of-consciousness prose, the form perfectly mirrors the protagonist’s fraught emotional state after experiencing sexual assault. Without some solid reason for making such a grand stylistic choice, you run the risk of succumbing to literary fiction’s most common pitfall: pretension.

Don’t be afraid to 'steal'

There’s no such thing as plagiarism when it comes to writing techniques. Everyone’s influenced by everyone, so don’t worry so much about being unique: instead, ask yourself how you can learn from others’ approaches and how you can adapt successful techniques to improve your story. Just don’t pretend you innovated in a cultural vacuum, and acknowledge your influences when speaking about your work.

To give you an example of how you might take an idea and put your own spin on it, look at Maggie Nelson’s Bluets and Patricia Lockwood’s No One is Talking About This . While both use fragmented, first-person vignettes — telling a succession of seemingly unrelated stories — the intended effect is very different indeed.

Bluets uses confessional vignettes to intimately portray the writer’s melancholy, whereas No One is Talking About This uses vignettes to mirror the internet’s endless feed of information. The fragmented technique they share sets both texts up with a foundation of honesty, a sense of being confided to — so if you like something that another author has done, feel free to ‘steal’ it and see how it works in a different context!

5. Remember your story structure basics

how to write a fiction essay thesis and outline

No matter how strange, experimental, or innovative a story is, it still needs to be coherently structured. When considering the right structure for your project, establish what you want the reader to feel. The Fichtean Curve, for example, is ideal for narratives driven by suspense and tension , while Freytag’s Pyramid is suited to tragedies ending in total catastrophe . 

How you organize your story matters a great deal. As a minimum, you have to make sure your story opening and ending are intriguing, complete, and compelling, and your middle isn’t uneventful. If there’s anything going on that distorts the linearity of time, you also need to spend some time clarifying the chronology of your narrative and ensuring it’s communicated clearly to your readers. 

If you aren’t sure about the structural choices you’ve made, a developmental edit by a professional editor is guaranteed to help you see things more clearly:

You can get creative with structure, too

Need some inspiration for structuring your story? Here are some creative literary fiction structures:

  • Lauren Oyler’s Fake Accounts , is divided into four sections, metatextually titled Beginning, Middle (Something Happens), Middle (Nothing Happens), and Climax — the novel uses its structure to provide ironic commentary on the predictability of modern life.
  • Paul Auster's 4321 tells four parallel stories following four versions of the same protagonist — all genetically identical but whose lives are shaped by the whims of random chance. As the story cycles between the different incarnations of our hero, it throws a light on the universe's infinite possibilities and how every life can hinge on the question, "What if?"
  • Gabriel García Márquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude combines an overarching linear, chronological structure, with cyclical narrative elements that show how the past repeats itself, generation after generation.
  • Joseph Conrad’s The Secret Agent completely shatters the linearity of time, jumping backward and forward in time and between characters to mirror the explosive effect of its central event: a bombing. The reading experience parallels the experience of the characters, as they try to piece together what has happened from disparate shards of information.
  • Olivia Sudjic’s Sympathy follows a spiral-like structure, examining seemingly tangential information as it slowly makes its way to the core of the story. The effect is that it accurately imitates the experience of falling down the Internet rabbit-hole of a new obsession, which the novel uses as one of its central themes.


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6. Roll up your sleeves and mercilessly edit your first draft

Even if you feel your first draft is terrible, it can still emerge from the editing process as something you’re proud of. To master self-editing, check out our free course:

Free course: How to self-edit like a pro

Rid your manuscript of the most common writing mistakes with this 10-day online course. Get started now.

And one final tip, specific to literary fiction writing:

For prose, purple is not the only color

People tend to view literary fiction as something “difficult,” so they try to write in a complicated, ornate way that matches that impression. But while it’s true that readers of literary fiction will expect a carefully considered writing style, there is no single “literary” way to write, so don’t overthink it. 

Instead, use whatever writing style suits your story and its aims best. A lyrical, poetic style is perfectly fine if it fits your purpose: Madeline Miller’s Circe , for example, uses language reminiscent of classical poetry to fully immerse readers in the mythical environment. On the other hand, a lot of highly regarded literary fiction is minimalist in style, pared down to a clinical and precise use of simple words to quietly convey exact moments of daily life. Examples include Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake and Raymond Carver’s What We Talk About When We Talk About Love , a taste of which you can get below:

  • “So many years I had spent as a child sifting his bright features for his thoughts, trying to glimpse among them one that bore my name. But he was a harp with only one string, and the note it played was himself.” — Circe by Madeline Miller
  • “She has given birth to vagabonds. She is the keeper of all these names and numbers now, numbers she once knew by heart, numbers and addresses her children no longer remember.” — The Namesake by Jhumpa Lahiri
  • “He poured more gin into his glass. He added an ice cube and a sliver of lime. We waited and sipped our drinks. Laura and I touched knees again. I put a hand on her warm thigh and left it there.” — What We Talk About When We Talk About Love by Raymond Carver

The idea here is that you write without feeling self-conscious about whether your writing is literary enough. Write in a way that helps your story progress — that’s enough.

Like all writing, literary fiction is a genre to conquer by practising. Focus on the story you want to write, and not the story you think others want to see you write. It’s a freeing distinction in helping you break past writer’s block. 

We hope these tips have inspired you to listen to your own instincts more and other people less — writing literary fiction should be a chance to experiment and play with your writing, not an opportunity to admonish yourself for not being original enough. Have fun!

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How to Write the AP Lit Prose Essay + Example

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What is the ap lit prose essay, how will ap scores affect my college chances.

AP Literature and Composition (AP Lit), not to be confused with AP English Language and Composition (AP Lang), teaches students how to develop the ability to critically read and analyze literary texts. These texts include poetry, prose, and drama. Analysis is an essential component of this course and critical for the educational development of all students when it comes to college preparation. In this course, you can expect to see an added difficulty of texts and concepts, similar to the material one would see in a college literature course.

While not as popular as AP Lang, over 380,136 students took the class in 2019. However, the course is significantly more challenging, with only 49.7% of students receiving a score of three or higher on the exam. A staggeringly low 6.2% of students received a five on the exam. 

The AP Lit exam is similar to the AP Lang exam in format, but covers different subject areas. The first section is multiple-choice questions based on five short passages. There are 55 questions to be answered in 1 hour. The passages will include at least two prose fiction passages and two poetry passages and will account for 45% of your total score. All possible answer choices can be found within the text, so you don’t need to come into the exam with prior knowledge of the passages to understand the work. 

The second section contains three free-response essays to be finished in under two hours. This section accounts for 55% of the final score and includes three essay questions: the poetry analysis essay, the prose analysis essay, and the thematic analysis essay. Typically, a five-paragraph format will suffice for this type of writing. These essays are scored holistically from one to six points.

Today we will take a look at the AP Lit prose essay and discuss tips and tricks to master this section of the exam. We will also provide an example of a well-written essay for review.  

The AP Lit prose essay is the second of the three essays included in the free-response section of the AP Lit exam, lasting around 40 minutes in total. A prose passage of approximately 500 to 700 words and a prompt will be given to guide your analytical essay. Worth about 18% of your total grade, the essay will be graded out of six points depending on the quality of your thesis (0-1 points), evidence and commentary (0-4 points), and sophistication (0-1 points). 

While this exam seems extremely overwhelming, considering there are a total of three free-response essays to complete, with proper time management and practiced skills, this essay is manageable and straightforward. In order to enhance the time management aspect of the test to the best of your ability, it is essential to understand the following six key concepts.

1. Have a Clear Understanding of the Prompt and the Passage

Since the prose essay is testing your ability to analyze literature and construct an evidence-based argument, the most important thing you can do is make sure you understand the passage. That being said, you only have about 40 minutes for the whole essay so you can’t spend too much time reading the passage. Allot yourself 5-7 minutes to read the prompt and the passage and then another 3-5 minutes to plan your response.

As you read through the prompt and text, highlight, circle, and markup anything that stands out to you. Specifically, try to find lines in the passage that could bolster your argument since you will need to include in-text citations from the passage in your essay. Even if you don’t know exactly what your argument might be, it’s still helpful to have a variety of quotes to use depending on what direction you take your essay, so take note of whatever strikes you as important. Taking the time to annotate as you read will save you a lot of time later on because you won’t need to reread the passage to find examples when you are in the middle of writing. 

Once you have a good grasp on the passage and a solid array of quotes to choose from, you should develop a rough outline of your essay. The prompt will provide 4-5 bullets that remind you of what to include in your essay, so you can use these to structure your outline. Start with a thesis, come up with 2-3 concrete claims to support your thesis, back up each claim with 1-2 pieces of evidence from the text, and write a brief explanation of how the evidence supports the claim.

2. Start with a Brief Introduction that Includes a Clear Thesis Statement

Having a strong thesis can help you stay focused and avoid tangents while writing. By deciding the relevant information you want to hit upon in your essay up front, you can prevent wasting precious time later on. Clear theses are also important for the reader because they direct their focus to your essential arguments. 

In other words, it’s important to make the introduction brief and compact so your thesis statement shines through. The introduction should include details from the passage, like the author and title, but don’t waste too much time with extraneous details. Get to the heart of your essay as quick as possible. 

3. Use Clear Examples to Support Your Argument 

One of the requirements AP Lit readers are looking for is your use of evidence. In order to satisfy this aspect of the rubric, you should make sure each body paragraph has at least 1-2 pieces of evidence, directly from the text, that relate to the claim that paragraph is making. Since the prose essay tests your ability to recognize and analyze literary elements and techniques, it’s often better to include smaller quotes. For example, when writing about the author’s use of imagery or diction you might pick out specific words and quote each word separately rather than quoting a large block of text. Smaller quotes clarify exactly what stood out to you so your reader can better understand what are you saying.

Including smaller quotes also allows you to include more evidence in your essay. Be careful though—having more quotes is not necessarily better! You will showcase your strength as a writer not by the number of quotes you manage to jam into a paragraph, but by the relevance of the quotes to your argument and explanation you provide.  If the details don’t connect, they are merely just strings of details.

4. Discussion is Crucial to Connect Your Evidence to Your Argument 

As the previous tip explained, citing phrases and words from the passage won’t get you anywhere if you don’t provide an explanation as to how your examples support the claim you are making. After each new piece of evidence is introduced, you should have a sentence or two that explains the significance of this quote to the piece as a whole.

This part of the paragraph is the “So what?” You’ve already stated the point you are trying to get across in the topic sentence and shared the examples from the text, so now show the reader why or how this quote demonstrates an effective use of a literary technique by the author. Sometimes students can get bogged down by the discussion and lose sight of the point they are trying to make. If this happens to you while writing, take a step back and ask yourself “Why did I include this quote? What does it contribute to the piece as a whole?” Write down your answer and you will be good to go. 

5. Write a Brief Conclusion

While the critical part of the essay is to provide a substantive, organized, and clear argument throughout the body paragraphs, a conclusion provides a satisfying ending to the essay and the last opportunity to drive home your argument. If you run out of time for a conclusion because of extra time spent in the preceding paragraphs, do not worry, as that is not fatal to your score. 

Without repeating your thesis statement word for word, find a way to return to the thesis statement by summing up your main points. This recap reinforces the arguments stated in the previous paragraphs, while all of the preceding paragraphs successfully proved the thesis statement.

6. Don’t Forget About Your Grammar

Though you will undoubtedly be pressed for time, it’s still important your essay is well-written with correct punctuating and spelling. Many students are able to write a strong thesis and include good evidence and commentary, but the final point on the rubric is for sophistication. This criteria is more holistic than the former ones which means you should have elevated thoughts and writing—no grammatical errors. While a lack of grammatical mistakes alone won’t earn you the sophistication point, it will leave the reader with a more favorable impression of you. 

how to write a fiction essay thesis and outline

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Here are Nine Must-have Tips and Tricks to Get a Good Score on the Prose Essay:

  • Carefully read, review, and underline key instruction s in the prompt.
  • Briefly outlin e what you want to cover in your essay.
  • Be sure to have a clear thesis that includes the terms mentioned in the instructions, literary devices, tone, and meaning.
  • Include the author’s name and title  in your introduction. Refer to characters by name.
  • Quality over quantity when it comes to picking quotes! Better to have a smaller number of more detailed quotes than a large amount of vague ones.
  • Fully explain how each piece of evidence supports your thesis .  
  • Focus on the literary techniques in the passage and avoid summarizing the plot. 
  • Use transitions to connect sentences and paragraphs.
  • Keep your introduction and conclusion short, and don’t repeat your thesis verbatim in your conclusion.

Here is an example essay from 2020 that received a perfect 6:

[1] In this passage from a 1912 novel, the narrator wistfully details his childhood crush on a girl violinist. Through a motif of the allure of musical instruments, and abundant sensory details that summon a vivid image of the event of their meeting, the reader can infer that the narrator was utterly enraptured by his obsession in the moment, and upon later reflection cannot help but feel a combination of amusement and a resummoning of the moment’s passion. 

[2] The overwhelming abundance of hyper-specific sensory details reveals to the reader that meeting his crush must have been an intensely powerful experience to create such a vivid memory. The narrator can picture the “half-dim church”, can hear the “clear wail” of the girl’s violin, can see “her eyes almost closing”, can smell a “faint but distinct fragrance.” Clearly, this moment of discovery was very impactful on the boy, because even later he can remember the experience in minute detail. However, these details may also not be entirely faithful to the original experience; they all possess a somewhat mysterious quality that shows how the narrator may be employing hyperbole to accentuate the girl’s allure. The church is “half-dim”, the eyes “almost closing” – all the details are held within an ethereal state of halfway, which also serves to emphasize that this is all told through memory. The first paragraph also introduces the central conciet of music. The narrator was drawn to the “tones she called forth” from her violin and wanted desperately to play her “accompaniment.” This serves the double role of sensory imagery (with the added effect of music being a powerful aural image) and metaphor, as the accompaniment stands in for the narrator’s true desire to be coupled with his newfound crush. The musical juxtaposition between the “heaving tremor of the organ” and the “clear wail” of her violin serves to further accentuate how the narrator percieved the girl as above all other things, as high as an angel. Clearly, the memory of his meeting his crush is a powerful one that left an indelible impact on the narrator. 

[3] Upon reflecting on this memory and the period of obsession that followed, the narrator cannot help but feel amused at the lengths to which his younger self would go; this is communicated to the reader with some playful irony and bemused yet earnest tone. The narrator claims to have made his “first and last attempts at poetry” in devotion to his crush, and jokes that he did not know to be “ashamed” at the quality of his poetry. This playful tone pokes fun at his childhood self for being an inexperienced poet, yet also acknowledges the very real passion that the poetry stemmed from. The narrator goes on to mention his “successful” endeavor to conceal his crush from his friends and the girl; this holds an ironic tone because the narrator immediately admits that his attempts to hide it were ill-fated and all parties were very aware of his feelings. The narrator also recalls his younger self jumping to hyperbolic extremes when imagining what he would do if betrayed by his love, calling her a “heartless jade” to ironically play along with the memory. Despite all this irony, the narrator does also truly comprehend the depths of his past self’s infatuation and finds it moving. The narrator begins the second paragraph with a sentence that moves urgently, emphasizing the myriad ways the boy was obsessed. He also remarks, somewhat wistfully, that the experience of having this crush “moved [him] to a degree which now [he] can hardly think of as possible.” Clearly, upon reflection the narrator feels a combination of amusement at the silliness of his former self and wistful respect for the emotion that the crush stirred within him. 

[4] In this passage, the narrator has a multifaceted emotional response while remembering an experience that was very impactful on him. The meaning of the work is that when we look back on our memories (especially those of intense passion), added perspective can modify or augment how those experiences make us feel

More essay examples, score sheets, and commentaries can be found at College Board .

While AP Scores help to boost your weighted GPA, or give you the option to get college credit, AP Scores don’t have a strong effect on your admissions chances . However, colleges can still see your self-reported scores, so you might not want to automatically send scores to colleges if they are lower than a 3. That being said, admissions officers care far more about your grade in an AP class than your score on the exam.

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55 Writing about the Novel: Film Comparison

You began the process of writing your literary comparison paper in the Introduction to the Novel chapter by choosing an essay, reading it carefully, and writing a personal response. In this chapter, we will move through the remaining steps of writing your paper.

Step 3: Choose a Film for Comparison

The key to a good comparison essay is to choose two subjects that connect in a meaningful way. The purpose of conducting the comparison is not to state the obvious, but rather to illuminate subtle differences or unexpected similarities.

When writing a film comparison paper, the point is to make an argument that will make your audience think about your topic in a new and interesting way. You might explore how the novel and the film present the theme…or how the novel and the film explore the identity of a main character…or…the options are limitless. Here’s a quick video giving you a little overview of what a film vs novel comparison might look like:

To this end, your next goal is to choose a film adaptation of your novel. Some novels may only have one, but some have many that have been created over the last 100 years! Your adaptation could be a feature film, a YouTube short, or an indie film. Choose one that allows you to make an interesting point about the portrayal of the theme of the novel and the film.

Step 4: Research

Once you’ve chosen a second piece, it’s time to enter into the academic conversation to see what others are saying about the authors and the pieces you’ve chosen.

Regardless of the focus of your essay, discovering more about the author of the text you’ve chosen can add to your understanding of the text and add depth to your argument. Author pages are located in the Literature Online ProQuest database. Here, you can find information about an author and his/her work, along with a list of recent articles written about the author. This is a wonderful starting point for your research.

The next step is to attempt to locate articles about the text and the film themselves. For novels, it’s important to narrow down your database choices to the Literature category. For essays, you might have better luck searching the whole ProQuest library with the ProQuest Research Library Article Databases or databases like Flipster that include publications like newspapers and magazines.

Finally, you might look for articles pertinent to an issue discussed in the novel. For example, The Grapes of Wrath is about the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl, but it also contains an environmental theme. Depending on what aspect you want to highlight in your comparison, you might look for articles about the Great Depression or about farming and the environment.

Remember, it is helpful to keep a Research Journal to track your research. Your journal should include, at a minimum, the correct MLA citation of the source, a brief summary of the article, and any quotes that stick out to you. A note about how you think the article adds to your understanding of the topic or might contribute to your project is a good addition, as well.

Step 5: Thesis & Outline

Similar to other academic essays, the film comparison essay starts with a thesis that clearly introduces the two subjects that are to be compared and the reason for doing so.

This video highlights some of the key differences between novels and films:

Begin by deciding on your basis for comparison. The basis of comparison could include items like a similar theme, differences in the focus of the piece, or the way both pieces represent an important issue.

This article gives some helpful advice on choosing a topic.

Once you’ve decided on the basis of comparison, you should focus on the points of comparison between the two pieces. For example, if you are focusing on how the literary elements and the cinematic elements used impact the message, you might make a table of each of these elements. Then, you’d find examples of each element from each piece. Remember, a comparison includes both similarities and differences.

By putting together your basis of comparison and your points of comparison, you’ll have a thesis that both makes an argument and gives readers a map of your essay.

A good thesis should be:

  • Statement of Fact: “The novel and the film of Pride and Prejudice are similar in many ways.”
  • Arguable: “The film version of Pride and Prejudice changes key moments in the text that alter the portrayal of the theme.”
  • Personal Opinion: “‘The novel is definitely better than the movie.”
  • Provable by the Texts: “Both the novel and the film focus on the importance of identity.”
  • Obvious: “The movie provides a modern take on the novel.”
  • Surprising: “Though the movie stays true to the original themes of the novel, the modern version may lead viewers to believe that the characters in the book held different values than are portrayed in the novel.”
  • General: “Both the novel and the film highlight the plight of women.”
  • Specific: “The novel and the film highlight the plight of women by focusing on specific experiences of the protagonist. “

The organizational structure you choose depends on the nature of the topic, your purpose, and your audience. You may organize compare-and-contrast essays in one of the following two ways:

  • Block: Organize topics according to the subjects themselves, discussing the novel and then the film.
  • Woven: Organize according to individual points, discussing both the novel and the film point by point.

Exercises: Create a Thesis and Outline

You’ll want to start by identifying the theme of both pieces and deciding how you want to tie them together. Then, you’ll want to think through the points of similarity and difference in the two pieces.

In two columns, write down the points that are similar and those that are different. Make sure to jot down quotes from the two pieces that illustrate these ideas.

Following the tips in this section, create a thesis and outline for your novel/film comparison paper.

Here’s a sample thesis and outline:

Step 6: Drafting Tips

Once you have a solid thesis and outline, it’s time to start drafting your essay. As in any academic essay, you’ll begin with an introduction. The introduction should include a hook that connects your readers to your topic. Then, you should introduce the topic. In this case, you will want to include the authors and title of the novel and the director and title of the film. Finally, your introduction should include your thesis. Remember, your thesis should be the last sentence of your introduction.

In a film comparison essay, you may want to follow your introduction with background on both pieces. Assume that your readers have at least heard of either the novel or the film, but that they might not have read the novel or watched the film–or both–…or maybe it’s been awhile. For example, if you were writing about Pride and Prejudice , you might include a brief introduction to Austen and her novel and an introduction to the version of the film you’ve chosen. The background section should be no more than two short paragraphs.

In the body of the paper, you’ll want to focus on supporting your argument. Regardless of the organizational scheme you choose, you’ll want to begin each paragraph with a topic sentence. This should be followed by the use of quotes from your two texts in support of your point. Remember to use the quote formula–always introduce and explain each quote and the relationship to your point! It’s very important that you address both literary pieces equally, balancing your argument. Finally, each paragraph should end with a wrap up sentence that tells readers the significance of the paragraph.

Here are some transition words that are helpful in tying points together:

Transition Words for a Comparison Essay
Comparison Contrast
One Similarity One Difference
Another Similarity Another Difference
Both Conversely
Like In Contrast
Likewise Unlike
Similarly While
In a Similar Fashion Whereas

Finally, your paper will end with a conclusion that brings home your argument and helps readers to understand the importance/significance of your essay.

In this video, an instructor explains step by step how to write an essay comparing two films. Though you will be writing about a novel and a film, rather than two films, the same information applies.

Here’s another instructor explaining how to write a comparison essay about two poems. Note the similarities between the two videos.

Here’s a sample paper:


  • Content created by Dr. Karen Palmer. Licensed under CC BY NC SA .
  • Content adapted from “Comparison and Contrast” from the book Successful Writing licensed CC BY NC SA .

The Worry Free Writer Copyright © 2020 by Dr. Karen Palmer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Literary Criticism

  • Introduction
  • Literary Theories
  • Steps to Literary Criticism
  • Find Resources
  • Cite Sources
  • thesis examples


These sample thesis statements are provided as guides, not as required forms or prescriptions.


The thesis may focus on an analysis of one of the elements of fiction, drama, poetry or nonfiction as expressed in the work: character, plot, structure, idea, theme, symbol, style, imagery, tone, etc.

In “A Worn Path,” Eudora Welty creates a fictional character in Phoenix Jackson whose determination, faith, and cunning illustrate the indomitable human spirit.

Note that the work, author, and character to be analyzed are identified in this thesis statement. The thesis relies on a strong verb (creates). It also identifies the element of fiction that the writer will explore (character) and the characteristics the writer will analyze and discuss (determination, faith, cunning).

Further Examples:

The character of the Nurse in Romeo and Juliet serves as a foil to young Juliet, delights us with her warmth and earthy wit, and helps realize the tragic catastrophe.

The works of ecstatic love poets Rumi, Hafiz, and Kabir use symbols such as a lover’s longing and the Tavern of Ruin to illustrate the human soul’s desire to connect with God.

The thesis may focus on illustrating how a work reflects the particular genre’s forms, the characteristics of a philosophy of literature, or the ideas of a particular school of thought.

“The Third and Final Continent” exhibits characteristics recurrent in writings by immigrants: tradition, adaptation, and identity.

Note how the thesis statement classifies the form of the work (writings by immigrants) and identifies the characteristics of that form of writing (tradition, adaptation, and identity) that the essay will discuss.

Further examples:

Samuel Beckett’s Endgame reflects characteristics of Theatre of the Absurd in its minimalist stage setting, its seemingly meaningless dialogue, and its apocalyptic or nihilist vision.

A close look at many details in “The Story of an Hour” reveals how language, institutions, and expected demeanor suppress the natural desires and aspirations of women.

The thesis may draw parallels between some element in the work and real-life situations or subject matter: historical events, the author’s life, medical diagnoses, etc.

In Willa Cather’s short story, “Paul’s Case,” Paul exhibits suicidal behavior that a caring adult might have recognized and remedied had that adult had the scientific knowledge we have today.

This thesis suggests that the essay will identify characteristics of suicide that Paul exhibits in the story. The writer will have to research medical and psychology texts to determine the typical characteristics of suicidal behavior and to illustrate how Paul’s behavior mirrors those characteristics.

Through the experience of one man, the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, accurately depicts the historical record of slave life in its descriptions of the often brutal and quixotic relationship between master and slave and of the fragmentation of slave families.

In “I Stand Here Ironing,” one can draw parallels between the narrator’s situation and the author’s life experiences as a mother, writer, and feminist.


1. In (title of work), (author) (illustrates, shows) (aspect) (adjective). 

Example: In “Barn Burning,” William Faulkner shows the characters Sardie and Abner Snopes struggling for their identity.

2. In (title of work), (author) uses (one aspect) to (define, strengthen, illustrate) the (element of work).

Example: In “Youth,” Joseph Conrad uses foreshadowing to strengthen the plot.

3. In (title of work), (author) uses (an important part of work) as a unifying device for (one element), (another element), and (another element). The number of elements can vary from one to four.

Example: In “Youth,” Joseph Conrad uses the sea as a unifying device for setting, structure and theme.

4. (Author) develops the character of (character’s name) in (literary work) through what he/she does, what he/she says, what other people say to or about him/her.

Example: Langston Hughes develops the character of Semple in “Ways and Means”…

5. In (title of work), (author) uses (literary device) to (accomplish, develop, illustrate, strengthen) (element of work).

Example: In “The Masque of the Red Death,” Poe uses the symbolism of the stranger, the clock, and the seventh room to develop the theme of death.

6. (Author) (shows, develops, illustrates) the theme of __________ in the (play, poem, story).

Example: Flannery O’Connor illustrates the theme of the effect of the selfishness of the grandmother upon the family in “A Good Man is Hard to Find.”

7. (Author) develops his character(s) in (title of work) through his/her use of language.

Example: John Updike develops his characters in “A & P” through his use of figurative language.

Perimeter College, Georgia State University,  http://depts.gpc.edu/~gpcltc/handouts/communications/literarythesis.pdf

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Writing a Top Thesis Outline – Your Comprehensive Guide

thesis outline

A thesis paper outline is a simple way of ensuring that each of your paragraphs serves a specific purpose in your paper. All students need to master this writing tool as it helps you organize your work.

What is a Thesis Outline?

A thesis outline is an organizational tool that writers use in their academic and professional thesis papers. Like a blueprint for your essay, it forms the foundation of the entire writing process. It is used to structure the main ideas into a list of easy and quick to follow contents.

Creating a thesis outline is vital in the following ways:

It gives a precise organization of the ideas Identifies parts of the paper that need special attention It singles out sections that need to be reduced or omitted Helps create connections and transitions where necessary It enables a student to fit the ideas systematically

Having a clearly defined thesis statement is better than a thousand thesis writers being dispatched at your disposal.

Thesis Outline Template

Now, what will make or break your master’s thesis outline or senior thesis outline is understanding its structure. It is not enough to have what to write but how to register it as well. That is why you need this template when writing a thesis outline.

Thesis Outline Format

A conventional thesis paper will have the following sections:

  • Introduction (contains the background and thesis statement)
  • The body paragraphs
  • The conclusion

To attain this thesis structure’s best, you have to understand each part’s significance and how it contributes to the overall thesis paper. Let us look at how to write a thesis outline while delving deep into every section.

Thesis topic outline

A topic is described as the trigger button of your paper. It will determine whether your reader will have the interest to read your thesis or not. Therefore, when you are thinking about your thesis topic, consider the following:

  • It should be brief and to the point (Do not explain or illustrate, just state)
  • Use the keywords provided in the assignment for your topic
  • AVOID using punctuations at the end
  • It should be an eye-catcher and act as a bait

For you to have a good thesis topic, it should offer a solution. Nobody wants to spend his precious time on a paper that does not address a prevailing societal problem.

  • How to do a thesis statement outline

The thesis statement is written in the introductory paragraph. Since this is the main idea for your paper, there is no room for error. Start with an attention-grabber that will lead the reader to your thesis statement.

Example of an attention grabber : Did you know that the average person who stays at home every day consumes over 10 tons of calories in a week?

Sample thesis statement : Excess calorie is a contributing factor to the high obesity rates patients witnessed in hospitals.

When creating a thesis statement outline, ensure that it relates to your introductory paragraph’s first two or three statements. Let it come out clearly so that the reader is prepared for what is coming next in the paper’s body.

They are made up of arguments in support of the thesis statement. This section carries a lot of weight as it either persuades or turns off the reader. Here is an outline for thesis paper body paragraphs:

Identify the main points Look for supporting ideas or evidence Have a list of transitional words from one section to another

The body of a thesis consists of the Literature Review, Research Methods, Results, and Discussion. It is recommended to begin with the literature review first before proceeding to the other two sections.

Since the Discussion is the longest part of the thesis, ensure that you gather all the necessary information needed to furnish it. In this part, you will need to identify the following aspects of your research process:

  • Limitations of your study,
  • Explanations for unexpected results, and
  • Identify any questions that remain unanswered.

Every argument should be crystal clear to prevent any doubt or object on the part of the reader.

  • The Conclusion

Though it appears last, it is one of the most critical sections of your thesis. It is the chapter that shows whether you achieved your research objectives or not. In this part, you can point out the following:

Point out the challenges you encountered in your study Your lessons from the research Make recommendations for future research

The conclusion should be a point where you identify whether every hypothesis was met or objective was achieved. It is vital to note that this chapter should short and clear to the end. Now that you have argued your case make this as your final nail to the coffin.

How To Make a Thesis Outline – Step By Step Guide

A superb outline can ease your research process and make your thesis writing process quick and easy. When you are thinking of creating a thesis paper outline, consider the following steps:

Read and understand the question first. If your tutor has given you a topic or question for your thesis, ensure that you digest it well to understand what is required of you. It will help to align your thesis outline correctly. Check for similar thesis outlines on the same topic. You can Google for any reliable thesis outline example that is similar to your topic of research. By doing this, you will get a rough idea of what is expected of you. Consult with your professor on the thesis outline format for your institution. Different institutions have varying structures, and thus, you need to use one that matches your institution’s house style. Do not rush into creating the outline. Before you draft your strategy, ensure that you have all the essentials at your fingertips first. Since this will be your guiding principle, it should be devoid of any errors or bogus steps.

After setting your house in order, writing your thesis paper is now time for the real task.

If you did not know how to create a thesis outline, we hope that this writing guide has served that purpose for you. Nevertheless, we also have a thesis writing service that offers students with online assistance.

Get help with thesis outline at affordable rates today. You can also find a master thesis outline example from gurus who have been in this business for decades. What is holding you now?

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  • Dissertation & Thesis Outline | Example & Free Templates

Dissertation & Thesis Outline | Example & Free Templates

Published on June 7, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on November 21, 2023.

A thesis or dissertation outline is one of the most critical early steps in your writing process . It helps you to lay out and organize your ideas and can provide you with a roadmap for deciding the specifics of your dissertation topic and showcasing its relevance to your field.

Generally, an outline contains information on the different sections included in your thesis or dissertation , such as:

  • Your anticipated title
  • Your abstract
  • Your chapters (sometimes subdivided into further topics like literature review, research methods, avenues for future research, etc.)

In the final product, you can also provide a chapter outline for your readers. This is a short paragraph at the end of your introduction to inform readers about the organizational structure of your thesis or dissertation. This chapter outline is also known as a reading guide or summary outline.

Table of contents

How to outline your thesis or dissertation, dissertation and thesis outline templates, chapter outline example, sample sentences for your chapter outline, sample verbs for variation in your chapter outline, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis and dissertation outlines.

While there are some inter-institutional differences, many outlines proceed in a fairly similar fashion.

  • Working Title
  • “Elevator pitch” of your work (often written last).
  • Introduce your area of study, sharing details about your research question, problem statement , and hypotheses . Situate your research within an existing paradigm or conceptual or theoretical framework .
  • Subdivide as you see fit into main topics and sub-topics.
  • Describe your research methods (e.g., your scope , population , and data collection ).
  • Present your research findings and share about your data analysis methods.
  • Answer the research question in a concise way.
  • Interpret your findings, discuss potential limitations of your own research and speculate about future implications or related opportunities.

For a more detailed overview of chapters and other elements, be sure to check out our article on the structure of a dissertation or download our template .

To help you get started, we’ve created a full thesis or dissertation template in Word or Google Docs format. It’s easy adapt it to your own requirements.

 Download Word template    Download Google Docs template

Chapter outline example American English

It can be easy to fall into a pattern of overusing the same words or sentence constructions, which can make your work monotonous and repetitive for your readers. Consider utilizing some of the alternative constructions presented below.

Example 1: Passive construction

The passive voice is a common choice for outlines and overviews because the context makes it clear who is carrying out the action (e.g., you are conducting the research ). However, overuse of the passive voice can make your text vague and imprecise.

Example 2: IS-AV construction

You can also present your information using the “IS-AV” (inanimate subject with an active verb ) construction.

A chapter is an inanimate object, so it is not capable of taking an action itself (e.g., presenting or discussing). However, the meaning of the sentence is still easily understandable, so the IS-AV construction can be a good way to add variety to your text.

Example 3: The “I” construction

Another option is to use the “I” construction, which is often recommended by style manuals (e.g., APA Style and Chicago style ). However, depending on your field of study, this construction is not always considered professional or academic. Ask your supervisor if you’re not sure.

Example 4: Mix-and-match

To truly make the most of these options, consider mixing and matching the passive voice , IS-AV construction , and “I” construction .This can help the flow of your argument and improve the readability of your text.

As you draft the chapter outline, you may also find yourself frequently repeating the same words, such as “discuss,” “present,” “prove,” or “show.” Consider branching out to add richness and nuance to your writing. Here are some examples of synonyms you can use.

Address Describe Imply Refute
Argue Determine Indicate Report
Claim Emphasize Mention Reveal
Clarify Examine Point out Speculate
Compare Explain Posit Summarize
Concern Formulate Present Target
Counter Focus on Propose Treat
Define Give Provide insight into Underpin
Demonstrate Highlight Recommend Use

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When you mention different chapters within your text, it’s considered best to use Roman numerals for most citation styles. However, the most important thing here is to remain consistent whenever using numbers in your dissertation .

The title page of your thesis or dissertation goes first, before all other content or lists that you may choose to include.

A thesis or dissertation outline is one of the most critical first steps in your writing process. It helps you to lay out and organize your ideas and can provide you with a roadmap for deciding what kind of research you’d like to undertake.

  • Your chapters (sometimes subdivided into further topics like literature review , research methods , avenues for future research, etc.)

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

George, T. (2023, November 21). Dissertation & Thesis Outline | Example & Free Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved July 10, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/dissertation-thesis-outline/

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Writing a Compare and Contrast Essay: A Complete Guide

Writing a Compare and Contrast Essay: A Complete Guide

Compare and contrast essay is an academic text that encourages authors to take a look at the differences between two or more subjects. Read this article to find out how to write a comparative essay for your assignment.

What is a compare and contrast essay?

As the name suggests, compare and contrast papers aim to provide two main perspectives on separate subjects by finding their similarities and dissecting their differences.

Oftentimes, the purpose of compare and contrast essays is to present one subject as a more favorable option. But it can also be used in analytical essay writing to showcase how two subjects are related to each other and help the audience better understand the concepts.

Compare and contrast essay outline

The comparative essay outline is not much different than other academic essays in terms of the outline. The compare and contrast essay outline includes:

  • Introduction , which contains a compare and contrast thesis statement;
  • Body of the essay , which presents the comparisons of two or more subjects of an essay;
  • Conclusion , which summarizes the line of reasoning used in the essay.

The main difference between other types of academic essays and compare and contrast essays is their structure. Let’s explore this in more detail.

Compare and contrast essay structure

The compare and contrast essay structure depends on your approach to comparing the paper subject. There are three main ways to structure your essay: the point-by-point method, the block method, and the similarities vs. differences method.

The point-by-point method: compare and contrast essay

This method involves dedicating each paragraph to a specific point and comparing all subjects related to it. This structure helps to highlight the correlation between the subjects in each important aspect or the differences between them.

For instance, if you compare planes and trains, your comparative essay could include the following paragraphs:

  • Time : how long it takes to get to the destination by plane and by train;
  • Environmental impact : what impact trains and planes have on the environment;
  • Costs : how expensive it is to travel by train and by plane.

This helps your readers instantly understand the similarities and differences between the subjects.

The block method: compare and contrast essay

Another popular approach to structuring the line of argument is the block method. Compare and contrast essays aim to give an overview of resemblances and distinctions between subjects. Unlike the previous approach, the block method in comparative essays allows the author to give a full overview of all subjects separately.

The block method requires you to present all the information about one subject before moving on to the next. While each block discusses one subject comprehensively, you can still compare and contrast within each paragraph or section where relevant. Here is an example of a compare and contrast essay structure:

  • Block 1 : a detailed analysis of the first subject, its features, advantages, and disadvantages;
  • Block 2: a detailed analysis of the second subject + brief overview of the similarities and differences between both topics of discussion.

This structure provides more clarity and allows for a detailed analysis of each subject independently.

Similarities vs. differences method: compare and contrast essay

This method focuses on specifically highlighting the differences and similarities between the subjects. Unlike the previously discussed approaches, this method dedicates separate paragraphs to either similarities or differences, depending on the writer's choice. According to the similarities vs. differences method, the compare and contrast essay structure would look like this:

  • Similarities : discuss similarities between the subjects, and provide details and examples of how these similarities manifest;
  • Differences : provide an overview of the main differences between subjects, compare how these differences manifest, and what they mean in the broader contest.

This method helps the author to conduct a thorough analysis of shared characteristics or contrasting features, which improves the reader's understanding of the relationships between the subjects.

How to write a comparative essay: tips and tricks

While the compare and contrast essay outline may seem familiar, this essay type requires a different approach to preparation and writing. Let’s explore the main steps for writing a perfect comparative essay.

Step 1. Gather your information

To provide a comprehensive analysis of several topics, you must conduct thorough research on them both. You need to make sure that the subjects have common aspects so that the comparison makes sense.

For example, it is perfectly fine to compare and contrast dogs and cats. But trying to compare cats and sharks would prove difficult since both species have little similarities.

Step 2. Create an outline

Making a plan for your future essay is important. It will help you stay on course and not forget about important details. To make a compare and contrast essay outline, you should choose the structure method that you want to use, and base your plan on it.

Step 3. Write an introduction

The first step to solving the issue of how to start a compare and contrast essay is writing an introduction. The introduction helps to engage your audience and grab their attention. It should consist of the following elements:

  • Hook. A hook is a sentence whose purpose is to grab the attention of the audience. It can be a quote, a rhetorical question, and other stylistic devices.
  • Background information . This part introduces the topic of your analysis and helps your audience to learn a bit more about the context.
  • Thesis statement . The compare and contrast thesis statement should clearly state whether you will be focusing on similarities, differences, or both, and why this comparison is significant. This gives your reader a hint for what to expect in the essay.

By following this plan, you can set the stage for a thoughtful and coherent comparison of your chosen subjects.

Step 4. Write the body of the essay

The body of your comparative essay should follow one of the previously described structures. You have the option to choose between the point-by-point method, the block method, and the similarities vs. differences method.

Depending on your choice, each paragraph of your essay will be dedicated to a specific topic. Make sure to start each paragraph with a short introduction, followed by a concise explanation of the similarities and differences between the subjects.

Always use transitional words and phrases like similarly , on the other hand , in contrast to guide the reader through your comparisons and contrasts. These transitions help maintain coherence and clarity in your essay.

Step 5. End your essay with a conclusion

The conclusion of your essay should summarize the key points discussed in your paper to reinforce your thesis. Make sure to briefly recap the similarities and differences you discussed in the body paragraphs. Conclude your essay by emphasizing the importance of the comparison.

Summary: How to write a comparative essay

Writing a comparative essay involves analyzing similarities and differences between two or more subjects, providing clear insights into their relationships and significance. With this handy guide, you now know how to create a comprehensive compare and contrast essay for your studies.

If you have trouble with how to start a compare and contrast essay, you can use essay generator Aithor for assistance. Aithor is a state-of-the-art AI generator created specifically to help with academic writing. Try essay generator Aithor and create a perfect compare and contrast essay right now!

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The 10 Best Books of the 21st Century according to Stephen King ,  Min Jin Lee ,  Karl Ove Knausgaard ,  Bonnie Garmus ,  Curtis Sittenfeld ,  R. L. Stine ,  Nana Kwame Adjei‑Brenyah ,  Junot Díaz ,  Sarah Jessica Parker ,  Anthony Doerr ,  James Patterson ,  Stephen Graham Jones ,  Elin Hilderbrand ,  Annette Gordon‑Reed ,  Rebecca Roanhorse ,  Marlon James ,  Roxane Gay ,  Jonathan Lethem ,  Sarah MacLean ,  Riley Sager ,  Ed Yong ,  Pico Iyer ,  Thomas Chatterton Williams ,  Paul Tremblay ,  Nick Hornby ,  Scott Turow ,  Daniel Alarcón ,  Honorée Fanonne Jeffers ,  Lucy Sante ,  Gary Shteyngart ,  Anand Giridharadas ,  Jessamine Chan ,  Michael Robbins ,  Alma Katsu ,  Megan Abbott ,  Joshua Ferris ,  Ann Napolitano ,  John Irving ,  Tiya Miles ,  Jami Attenberg ,  Stephen L. Carter ,  Sarah Schulman ,  Elizabeth Hand ,  Dion Graham ,  Jeremy Denk ,  Morgan Jerkins ,  Michael Roth ,  Ryan Holiday ,  Stephanie Land ,  Douglas Preston ,  Mary Roach  &  Roxana Robinson

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Stephen King

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3 of these, so far, appear on the 100 Best list. (This page will update throughout the week.)

Min jin lee, min jin lee has written two novels: free food for millionaires and pachinko , which was one of the times’s 10 best books of 2017..

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Bonnie garmus, bonnie garmus is the author of lessons in chemistry , which was named barnes & noble’s book of the year in 2022..

book cover for Between the World and Me by Ta-Nehisi Coates

“Between the World and Me,” by Ta-Nehisi Coates ● “Demon Copperhead,” by Barbara Kingsolver ● “Educated,” by Tara Westover ● “Genome,” by Matt Ridley ● “Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince,” by J.K. Rowling ● “A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius,” by Dave Eggers ● “Henry David Thoreau,” by Laura Dassow Walls ● “Pobby and Dingan,” by Ben Rice ● “The Underground Railroad,” by Colson Whitehead ● “The Worst Hard Time,” by Timothy Egan

Curtis Sittenfeld

Curtis sittenfeld’s novels include prep , american wife , and romantic comedy ..

book cover for The Line of Beauty by Alan Hollinghurst

“The Line of Beauty,” by Alan Hollinghurst ● “A Lucky Man,” by Jamel Brinkley ● “Trust,” by Hernan Diaz ● “Great Circle,” by Maggie Shipstead ● “Brotherless Night,” by V. V. Ganeshananthan ● “Everything's Fine,” by Cecilia Rabess ● “I Love You But I've Chosen Darkness,” by Claire Vaye Watkins ● “Swift River,” by Essie Chambers ● “Sea Creatures,” by Susanna Daniel ● “Make Your Home Among Strangers,” by Jennine Capó Crucet

R. L. Stine

R.l. stine is a prolific children’s book author best known for his goosebumps series..

book cover for The Devil in the White City by Erik Larson

“The Devil in the White City,” by Erik Larson ● “Deacon King Kong,” by James McBride ● “The Thursday Murder Club,” by Richard Osman ● “The Goldfinch,” by Donna Tartt ● “All the Light We Cannot See,” by Anthony Doerr ● “Gone Girl,” by Gillian Flynn ● “Atonement,” by Ian McEwan ● “Everything Is Illuminated,” by Jonathan Safran Foer ● “The Law of Innocence,” by Michael Connelly ● “City on Fire,” by Don Winslow

Nana Kwame Adjei‑Brenyah

Nana kwame adjei‑brenyah’s debut novel, chain-gang all-stars , was one of the times’s 10 best books of 2023..

book cover for Drinking Coffee Elsewhere: Stories by ZZ Packer

“Drinking Coffee Elsewhere: Stories,” by ZZ Packer ● “Ghost Of,” by Diana Khoi Nguyen ● “Greenwood,” by Michael Christie ● “Look,” by Solmaz Sharif ● “Pachinko,” by Min Jin Lee ● “Pastoralia,” by George Saunders ● “Sing, Unburied, Sing,” by Jesmyn Ward ● “Stories of Your Life and Others,” by Ted Chiang ● “Tenth of December,” by George Saunders ● “The Underground Railroad,” by Colson Whitehead

2 of these, so far, appear on the 100 Best list. (This page will update throughout the week.)

Junot díaz is an author whose books include the brief wondrous life of oscar wao , which won the 2008 pulitzer prize for fiction..

book cover for Americanah by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

“Americanah,” by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie ● “Behind the Beautiful Forevers,” by Katherine Boo ● “Brother, I'm Dying,” by Edwidge Danticat ● “Kingdom Animalia,” by Aracelis Girmay ● “The Known World,” by Edward P. Jones ● “Out,” by Natsuo Kirino ● “The Savage Detectives,” by Roberto Bolaño ● “Say Her Name,” by Francisco Goldman ● “Stories of Your Life and Others,” by Ted Chiang ● “Tuff,” by Paul Beatty

Sarah Jessica Parker

Sarah jessica parker is an emmy-winning actress and the founder of zando’s literary imprint, sjp lit..

book cover for An American Marriage by Tayari Jones

“An American Marriage,” by Tayari Jones ● “The Bee Sting,” by Paul Murray ● “A Burning,” by Megha Majumdar ● “A Constellation of Vital Phenomena,” by Anthony Marra ● “The Corrections,” by Jonathan Franzen ● “The Goldfinch,” by Donna Tartt ● “A History of Burning,” by Janika Oza ● “The Nickel Boys,” by Colson Whitehead ● “Say Nothing,” by Patrick Radden Keefe ● “Wave,” by Sonali Deraniyagala

Anthony Doerr

Anthony doerr’s 2014 novel, all the light we cannot see , won the pulitzer prize..

book cover for The Sixth Extinction by Elizabeth Kolbert

“The Sixth Extinction,” by Elizabeth Kolbert ● “Evicted,” by Matthew Desmond ● “Behind the Beautiful Forevers,” by Katherine Boo ● “The Collected Stories of Amy Hempel,” by Amy Hempel ● “Gilead,” by Marilynne Robinson ● “Wolf Hall,” by Hilary Mantel ● “Train Dreams,” by Denis Johnson ● “Jonathan Strange and Mr Norrell,” by Susanna Clarke ● “Family Furnishings,” by Alice Munro ● “Austerlitz,” by W.G. Sebald

James Patterson

James patterson has written more than 200 books across various genres, including collaborations with bill clinton and dolly parton. his latest books include confessions of the dead , which he wrote with j.d. barker, and tiger, tiger ..

book cover for 11/22/63 by Stephen King

“11/22/63,” by Stephen King ● “The Book Thief,” by Markus Zusak ● “Educated,” by Tara Westover ● “The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo,” by Stieg Larsson ● “Gone Girl,” by Gillian Flynn ● “Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire,” by J.K. Rowling ● “Kitchen Confidential,” by Anthony Bourdain ● “Life,” by Keith Richards with James Fox ● “Mystic River,” by Dennis Lehane ● “Seabiscuit,” by Laura Hillenbrand

Stephen Graham Jones

Stephen graham jones is an award-winning horror writer whose most recent novel is i was a teenage slasher ..

book cover for The Reformatory by Tananarive Due

“The Reformatory,” by Tananarive Due ● “The Bear and the Nightingale,” by Katherine Arden ● “Fortune Smiles,” by Adam Johnson ● “World War Z,” by Max Brooks ● “Dare Me,” by Megan Abbott ● “Redshirts,” by John Scalzi ● “Knockemstiff,” by Donald Ray Pollock ● “The Lesser Dead,” by Christopher Buehlman ● “Come Closer,” by Sara Gran ● “FantasticLand,” by Mike Bockoven

Elin Hilderbrand

Elin hilderbrand, often referred to as the queen of beach reads, recently announced that swan song , released in june, would be the last of her nantucket summer novels..

book cover for Alice & Oliver by Charles Bock

“Alice & Oliver,” by Charles Bock ● “American Wife,” by Curtis Sittenfeld ● “Dirt Music,” by Tim Winton ● “Euphoria,” by Lily King ● “Every Last One,” by Anna Quindlen ● “Fates and Furies,” by Lauren Groff ● “Hamnet,” by Maggie O'Farrell ● “Luster,” by Raven Leilani ● “May We Be Forgiven,” by A.M. Homes ● “The Night Circus,” by Erin Morgenstern

Annette Gordon‑Reed

Annette gordon-reed is a professor at harvard university whose 2008 history, the hemingses of monticello , won both a pulitzer prize and a national book award... ... and she also included it on her ballot, telling us, “i couldn’t help it.”.

book cover for The Emperor of All Maladies by Siddhartha Mukherjee

“Between the World and Me,” by Ta-Nehisi Coates ● “The Emperor of All Maladies,” by Siddhartha Mukherjee ● “Gilead,” by Marilynne Robinson ● “The Hemingses of Monticello,” by Annette Gordon-Reed ● “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks,” by Rebecca Skloot ● “The Metaphysical Club,” by Louis Menand ● “The Plot Against America,” by Philip Roth ● “The Underground Railroad,” by Colson Whitehead ● “The Warmth of Other Suns,” by Isabel Wilkerson ● “Wolf Hall,” by Hilary Mantel

Rebecca Roanhorse

Rebecca roanhorse is a hugo- and nebula-winning science fiction and fantasy novelist whose works include black sun and trail of lightning..

book cover for Ancillary Justice by Ann Leckie

“Ancillary Justice,” by Ann Leckie ● “Exhalation,” by Ted Chiang ● “The Fifth Season,” by N.K. Jemisin ● “The Ministry for the Future,” by Kim Stanley Robinson ● “The Only Good Indians,” by Stephen Graham Jones ● “The Paper Menagerie and Other Stories,” by Ken Liu ● “Ring Shout,” by P. Djèlí Clark ● “The Round House,” by Louise Erdrich ● “The Saint of Bright Doors,” by Vajra Chandrasekera ● “Selected Stories,” by Theodore Sturgeon

Marlon James

Marlon james is the author of five novels, including a brief history of seven killings , which won the 2015 booker prize..

book cover for As Meat Loves Salt by Maria McCann

“2666,” by Roberto Bolaño ● “As Meat Loves Salt,” by Maria McCann ● “Evicted,” by Matthew Desmond ● “The Fifth Season,” by N.K. Jemisin ● “The Good Lord Bird,” by James McBride ● “The Line of Beauty,” by Alan Hollinghurst ● “Pachinko,” by Min Jin Lee ● “Skippy Dies,” by Paul Murray ● “Wolf Hall,” by Hilary Mantel ● “The World Is What It Is,” by Patrick French

Roxane Gay is an editor, essayist and author whose best-selling nonfiction includes BAD FEMINIST and HUNGER . She is also a contributing Opinion writer for The New York Times.

book cover for The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay by Michael Chabon

“The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay,” by Michael Chabon ● “The Brutal Language of Love,” by Alicia Erian ● “Girl, Woman, Other,” by Bernardine Evaristo ● “Heavy,” by Kiese Laymon ● “Her Body and Other Parties,” by Carmen Maria Machado ● “NW,” by Zadie Smith ● “Pachinko,” by Min Jin Lee ● “Room,” by Emma Donoghue ● “Salvage the Bones,” by Jesmyn Ward ● “State of Wonder,” by Ann Patchett

Jonathan Lethem

Jonathan lethem is a writer best known for his 1999 novel motherless brooklyn ..

book cover for Aurora by Kim Stanley Robinson

“Aurora,” by Kim Stanley Robinson ● “Dear Cyborgs,” by Eugene Lim ● “The Employees,” by Olga Ravn ● “Erasure,” by Percival Everett ● “Hawthorn & Child,” by Keith Ridgway ● “Houses of Ravicka,” by Renee Gladman ● “How the Dead Dream,” by Lydia Millet ● “The Last Samurai,” by Helen DeWitt ● “Pity the Beast,” by Robin McLean ● “Trance,” by Christopher Sorrentino

Sarah MacLean

Sarah maclean is an award-winning romance writer whose most recent novel is knockout ..

book cover for After Hours on Milagro Street by Angelina M. Lopez

“After Hours on Milagro Street,” by Angelina M. Lopez ● “Again the Magic,” by Lisa Kleypas ● “Bet Me,” by Jennifer Crusie ● “Circe,” by Madeline Miller ● “Dark Needs at Night's Edge,” by Kresley Cole ● “Forbidden,” by Beverly Jenkins ● “Georgie, All Along,” by Kate Clayborn ● “Hana Khan Carries On,” by Uzma Jalaluddin ● “A Heart of Blood and Ashes,” by Milla Vane ● “Ravishing the Heiress,” by Sherry Thomas

Riley Sager

Riley sager’s most recent novel is middle of the night ..

book cover for Special Topics in Calamity Physics by Marisha Pessl

“Seabiscuit,” by Laura Hillenbrand ● “Never Let Me Go,” by Kazuo Ishiguro ● “Atonement,” by Ian McEwan ● “Special Topics in Calamity Physics,” by Marisha Pessl ● “Gone Girl,” by Gillian Flynn ● “All the Light We Cannot See,” by Anthony Doerr ● “Lincoln in the Bardo,” by George Saunders ● “Middlesex,” by Jeffrey Eugenides ● “Beautiful Ruins,” by Jess Walter ● “Dare Me,” by Megan Abbott

Ed Yong is a Pulitzer Prize-winning science journalist and the author of AN IMMENSE WORLD and I CONTAIN MULTITUDES .

book cover for Bel Canto by Ann Patchett

“Bel Canto,” by Ann Patchett ● “Chain-Gang All-Stars,” by Nana Kwame Adjei-Brenyah ● “A Day in the Life of Abed Salama,” by Nathan Thrall ● “Exit West,” by Mohsin Hamid ● “H Is for Hawk,” by Helen Macdonald ● “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks,” by Rebecca Skloot ● “Saving Time,” by Jenny Odell ● “The Swimmers,” by Julie Otsuka ● “This Is How You Lose the Time War,” by Amal El-Mohtar and Max Gladstone ● “Trust,” by Hernan Diaz

Pico Iyer is a writer whose books include THE HALF KNOWN LIFE and FALLING OFF THE MAP .

book cover for Hateship, Friendship, Courtship, Loveship, Marriage by Alice Munro

“Hateship, Friendship, Courtship, Loveship, Marriage,” by Alice Munro ● “Selected Stories,” by William Trevor ● “The World Is What It Is,” by Patrick French ● “Bring Up the Bodies,” by Hilary Mantel ● “The Buried Giant,” by Kazuo Ishiguro ● “Olive Kitteridge,” by Elizabeth Strout ● “Evicted,” by Matthew Desmond ● “Lincoln in the Bardo,” by George Saunders ● “Matrix,” by Lauren Groff ● “Behind the Beautiful Forevers,” by Katherine Boo

Thomas Chatterton Williams

Thomas chatterton williams, a staff writer at the atlantic, is the author of losing my cool and self-portrait in black and white ..

book cover for The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Díaz

“2666,” by Roberto Bolaño ● “The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao,” by Junot Díaz ● “The Coddling of the American Mind,” by Greg Lukianoff and Jonathan Haidt ● “Feel Free,” by Zadie Smith ● “Last Evenings on Earth,” by Roberto Bolaño ● “The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P,” by Adelle Waldman ● “Outline,” by Rachel Cusk ● “The Savage Detectives,” by Roberto Bolaño ● “The Unwinding,” by George Packer ● “Transit,” by Rachel Cusk

Paul Tremblay

Paul tremblay is an award-winning horror novelist whose latest book is horror movie ..

book cover for House of Leaves by Mark Z. Danielewski

“2666,” by Roberto Bolaño ● “House of Leaves,” by Mark Z. Danielewski ● “Lady Joker, Vol. 1,” by Kaoru Takamura ● “The Maniac,” by Benjamín Labatut ● “Never Let Me Go,” by Kazuo Ishiguro ● “No Country for Old Men,” by Cormac McCarthy ● “The Only Good Indians,” by Stephen Graham Jones ● “Our Share of Night,” by Mariana Enriquez ● “Treasure Island!!!,” by Sara Levine ● “The Underground Railroad,” by Colson Whitehead

Nick Hornby

Nick hornby is best known for comic novels like high fidelity and about a boy ..

book cover for Austerity Britain by David Kynaston

“The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay,” by Michael Chabon ● “Austerity Britain,” by David Kynaston ● “Billy Lynn's Long Halftime Walk,” by Ben Fountain ● “Empire Falls,” by Richard Russo ● “Gilead,” by Marilynne Robinson ● “Olive Kitteridge,” by Elizabeth Strout ● “On Beauty,” by Zadie Smith ● “Pictures at a Revolution,” by Mark Harris ● “Random Family,” by Adrian Nicole LeBlanc ● “Say Nothing,” by Patrick Radden Keefe

Scott Turow

Scott turow is an attorney and writer best known for legal thrillers like presumed innocent and the burden of proof ..

book cover for Dreamland by Sam Quinones

“Bel Canto,” by Ann Patchett ● “Dreamland,” by Sam Quinones ● “The Good Lord Bird,” by James McBride ● “My Brilliant Friend,” by Elena Ferrante. Translated by Ann Goldstein. ● “On Tyranny,” by Timothy Snyder ● “The Orphan Master's Son,” by Adam Johnson ● “The Story of a New Name,” by Elena Ferrante. Translated by Ann Goldstein ● “The Story of the Lost Child,” by Elena Ferrante. Translated by Ann Goldstein ● “Thinking, Fast and Slow,” by Daniel Kahneman ● “Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay,” by Elena Ferrante. Translated by Ann Goldstein

Daniel Alarcón

Daniel alarcón is a novelist ( lost city radio ) and contributing writer at the new yorker whose long-running spanish-language podcast, radio ambulante, is distributed by npr..

book cover for Citizen by Claudia Rankine

“The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao,” by Junot Díaz ● “Citizen,” by Claudia Rankine ● “Exit West,” by Mohsin Hamid ● “The Known World,” by Edward P. Jones ● “Lincoln in the Bardo,” by George Saunders ● “My Brilliant Friend,” by Elena Ferrante. Translated by Ann Goldstein. ● “NW,” by Zadie Smith ● “Random Family,” by Adrian Nicole LeBlanc ● “The Savage Detectives,” by Roberto Bolaño ● “Say Nothing,” by Patrick Radden Keefe

Honorée Fanonne Jeffers

Honorée fanonne jeffers is a poet and professor of english at the university of oklahoma. her debut novel, the love songs of w.e.b. du bois , was one of the times’s 10 best books of 2021..

book cover for Built from the Fire by Victor Luckerson

“Brother, I'm Dying,” by Edwidge Danticat ● “Built from the Fire,” by Victor Luckerson ● “Feminism Is for Everybody,” by bell hooks ● “Gathering Blossoms,” by Alice Walker ● “The Known World,” by Edward P. Jones ● “A Mercy,” by Toni Morrison ● “The Source of Self-Regard,” by Toni Morrison ● “Stamped From the Beginning,” by Ibram X. Kendi ● “Ties that Bind,” by Tiya Miles ● “The Warmth of Other Suns,” by Isabel Wilkerson

Lucy Sante is a writer whose last book, I HEARD HER CALL MY NAME , is a memoir of her gender transition.

book cover for Anniversaries by Uwe Johnson. Translated by Damion Searls

“Anniversaries,” by Uwe Johnson. Translated by Damion Searls ● “Feral City,” by Jeremiah Moss ● “The Friend,” by Sigrid Nunez ● “It Gets Me Home, This Curving Track,” by Ian Penman ● “Jacket Weather,” by Mike DeCapite ● “The Mars Room,” by Rachel Kushner ● “Same Bed Different Dreams,” by Ed Park ● “The Savage Detectives,” by Roberto Bolaño ● “Stay True,” by Hua Hsu ● “Voices From Chernobyl,” by Svetlana Alexievich

Gary Shteyngart

Gary shteyngart has written five novels, one of which, absurdistan , was named one of the times’s 10 best books of 2006..

book cover for Bangkok Wakes to Rain by Pitchaya Sudbanthad

“Bangkok Wakes to Rain,” by Pitchaya Sudbanthad ● “The Collected Stories of Amy Hempel,” by Amy Hempel ● “Educated,” by Tara Westover ● “Exit West,” by Mohsin Hamid ● “The Master,” by Colm Tóibín ● “Netherland,” by Joseph O’Neill ● “Outline,” by Rachel Cusk ● “Postwar,” by Tony Judt ● “Veronica,” by Mary Gaitskill ● “The Warmth of Other Suns,” by Isabel Wilkerson

Anand Giridharadas

Anand giridharadas is a writer and former foreign correspondent whose books include the persuaders and winners take all ..

book cover for Dark Money by Jane Mayer

“The Argonauts,” by Maggie Nelson ● “Behind the Beautiful Forevers,” by Katherine Boo ● “Dark Money,” by Jane Mayer ● “Far From the Tree,” by Andrew Solomon ● “A Little Life,” by Hanya Yanagihara ● “Maximum City,” by Suketu Mehta ● “My Struggle: Book 2,” by Karl Ove Knausgaard ● “One of Us,” by Asne Seierstad ● “Random Family,” by Adrian Nicole LeBlanc ● “The Year of Magical Thinking,” by Joan Didion

Jessamine Chan

Jessamine chan’s debut novel, the school for good mothers , was named by barack obama as one of his favorite books of 2022..

book cover for Cinema Love by Jiaming Tang

“Chain-Gang All-Stars,” by Nana Kwame Adjei-Brenyah ● “Cinema Love,” by Jiaming Tang ● “Easy Beauty,” by Chloé Cooper Jones ● “Invisible Child,” by Andrea Elliott ● “Kairos,” by Jenny Erpenbeck ● “Matrix,” by Lauren Groff ● “Minor Feelings,” by Cathy Park Hong ● “Never Let Me Go,” by Kazuo Ishiguro ● “Pure Colour,” by Sheila Heti ● “Torn Apart,” by Dorothy Roberts

Michael Robbins

Michael robbins is the author of several poetry collections, including walkman and the second sex ..

book cover for Alien vs. Predator by Michael Robbins

“Alien vs. Predator,” by Michael Robbins ● “Communal Luxury,” by Kristin Ross ● “Cruel Optimism,” by Lauren Berlant ● “Fossil Capital,” by Andreas Malm ● “Keats's Odes,” by Anahid Nersessian ● “Lila,” by Marilynne Robinson ● “Planet of Slums,” by Mike Davis ● “Poemland,” by Chelsey Minnis ● “Stolen Life,” by Fred Moten ● “Veronica,” by Mary Gaitskill

Alma Katsu is a genre-spanning writer whose books include RED WIDOW and THE HUNGER .

book cover for The Little Friend by Donna Tartt

“Gone Girl,” by Gillian Flynn ● “Jonathan Strange and Mr Norrell,” by Susanna Clarke ● “Lincoln in the Bardo,” by George Saunders ● “The Little Friend,” by Donna Tartt ● “The Little Stranger,” by Sarah Waters ● “Never Let Me Go,” by Kazuo Ishiguro ● “The Only Good Indians,” by Stephen Graham Jones ● “The Swimmers,” by Julie Otsuka ● “The Time Traveler's Wife,” by Audrey Niffenegger ● “Wolf Hall,” by Hilary Mantel

Megan Abbott

Megan abbott is the edgar-winning author of 11 novels, including dare me , the turnout and beware the woman ..

book cover for Blonde by Joyce Carol Oates

“Blonde,” by Joyce Carol Oates ● “Gone Girl,” by Gillian Flynn ● “Life After Life,” by Kate Atkinson ● “A Little Life,” by Hanya Yanagihara ● “Lost Girls,” by Robert Kolker ● “My Sister, the Serial Killer,” by Oyinkan Braithwaite ● “Nemesis,” by Philip Roth ● “Random Family,” by Adrian Nicole LeBlanc ● “Winter's Bone,” by Daniel Woodrell ● “The Year of Magical Thinking,” by Joan Didion

Joshua Ferris

Joshua ferris has written five novels, including then we came to the end , which won the 2008 pen/hemingway award..

book cover for The Gathering by Anne Enright

“The Corrections,” by Jonathan Franzen ● “The Gathering,” by Anne Enright ● “Gilead,” by Marilynne Robinson ● “The Known World,” by Edward P. Jones ● “No Country for Old Men,” by Cormac McCarthy ● “No One Is Talking About This,” by Patricia Lockwood ● “NW,” by Zadie Smith ● “The Savage Detectives,” by Roberto Bolaño ● “Tinkers,” by Paul Harding ● “Wolf Hall,” by Hilary Mantel

Ann Napolitano

Ann napolitano is a novelist whose last book, hello beautiful , was the 100th pick of oprah’s book club..

book cover for Cloud Atlas by David Mitchell

“Americanah,” by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie ● “The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao,” by Junot Díaz ● “Cloud Atlas,” by David Mitchell ● “Demon Copperhead,” by Barbara Kingsolver ● “Far From the Tree,” by Andrew Solomon ● “Homegoing,” by Yaa Gyasi ● “The Master,” by Colm Tóibín ● “Station Eleven,” by Emily St. John Mandel ● “The Underground Railroad,” by Colson Whitehead ● “Wolf Hall,” by Hilary Mantel

John Irving

John irving is the author of the world according to garp , the cider house rules and a prayer for owen meany , among other novels..

book cover for The Absolutist by John Boyne

“The Absolutist,” by John Boyne ● “Burma Sahib,” by Paul Theroux ● “Cutting for Stone,” by Abraham Verghese ● “Last Night,” by James Salter ● “The Nix,” by Nathan Hill ● “Peeling the Onion,” by Günter Grass ● “A Saint from Texas,” by Edmund White ● “Shadow Country,” by Peter Matthiessen ● “Warlight,” by Michael Ondaatje ● “Why Be Happy When You Could Be Normal?,” by Jeanette Winterson

Tiya Miles is a professor of history at Harvard University whose books include ALL THAT SHE CARRIED , which won the 2021 National Book Award for nonfiction, and the just-published NIGHT FLYER .

book cover for Frederick Douglass by David W. Blight

“Frederick Douglass,” by David W. Blight ● “The Hemingses of Monticello,” by Annette Gordon-Reed ● “Less,” by Andrew Sean Greer ● “The Omnivore's Dilemma,” by Michael Pollan ● “People Love Dead Jews,” by Dara Horn ● “The Round House,” by Louise Erdrich ● “Salvage the Bones,” by Jesmyn Ward ● “The Swerve,” by Stephen Greenblatt ● “The Underground Railroad,” by Colson Whitehead

Jami Attenberg

Jami attenberg is a writer whose new novel, a reason to see you again , comes out in september..

book cover for Bright Dead Things by Ada Limón

“Bright Dead Things,” by Ada Limón ● “The Corrections,” by Jonathan Franzen ● “Fun Home,” by Alison Bechdel ● “Grief Is For People,” by Sloane Crosley ● “Heavy,” by Kiese Laymon ● “How to Write an Autobiographical Novel,” by Alexander Chee ● “Just Kids,” by Patti Smith ● “Pachinko,” by Min Jin Lee ● “There Are More Beautiful Things Than Beyoncé,” by Morgan Parker ● “True Biz,” by Sara Novic

Stephen L. Carter

Stephen l. carter, a professor at yale law school, has written critically acclaimed nonfiction as well as six novels, including the emperor of ocean park ..

book cover for Bourgeois Dignity by Deirdre McCloskey

“Bourgeois Dignity,” by Deirdre McCloskey ● “Exit West,” by Mohsin Hamid ● “The Fabric of Civilization,” by Virginia Postrel ● “The Human Stain,” by Philip Roth ● “Inventing the Enemy,” by Umberto Eco ● “March,” by Geraldine Brooks ● “The Overstory,” by Richard Powers ● “Silence,” by Jane Brox ● “That All Shall Be Saved,” by David Bentley Hart ● “What It Means When a Man Falls From the Sky,” by Lesley Nneka Arimah

Sarah Schulman

Sarah schulman is a novelist, playwright and nonfiction writer whose most recent book is let the record show ..

book cover for The Freezer Door by Mattilda Bernstein Sycamore

“Citizen,” by Claudia Rankine ● “The Freezer Door,” by Mattilda Bernstein Sycamore ● “Memorial Drive,” by Natasha Trethewey ● “Minor Detail,” by Adania Shibli ● “The Rediscovery of America,” by Ned Blackhawk ● “They Were Her Property,” by Stephanie E. Jones-Rogers ● “Vanguard,” by Martha S. Jones ● “The Viral Underclass,” by Steven W. Thrasher ● “We Could Have Been Friends, My Father and I,” by Raja Shehadeh ● “The Women's House of Detention,” by Hugh Ryan

Elizabeth Hand

Elizabeth hand is the author of 20 novels, most recently a haunting on the hill ..

book cover for The Enchanted by Rene Denfeld

“The Enchanted,” by Rene Denfeld ● “Henry Darger,” by John M. MacGregor ● “Ill Will,” by Dan Chaon ● “James Tiptree Jr.,” by Julie Phillips ● “Just Kids,” by Patti Smith ● “The Little Stranger,” by Sarah Waters ● “Magic for Beginners,” by Kelly Link ● “Night of the Living Rez,” by Morgan Talty ● “The Old Ways,” by Robert Macfarlane ● “Pattern Recognition,” by William Gibson

Dion Graham

Dion graham is an actor whose award-winning audiobook narrations include jonathan eig’s king and colson whitehead’s crook manifesto ..

book cover for American War by Omar El Akkad

“American War,” by Omar El Akkad ● “Black Leopard, Red Wolf,” by Marlon James ● “Chasing Me to My Grave,” by Winfred Rembert ● “The Dark Forest,” by Cixin Liu ● “Evicted,” by Matthew Desmond ● “A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius,” by Dave Eggers ● “His Name Is George Floyd,” by Robert Samuels and Toluse Olorunnipa ● “King: A Life,” by Jonathan Eig ● “Washington Black,” by Esi Edugyan

Jeremy Denk

Jeremy denk is a classical pianist and the recipient of a macarthur foundation “genius grant.” his memoir, every good boy does fine , was published in 2022..

book cover for Consider the Lobster by David Foster Wallace

“Austerlitz,” by W.G. Sebald ● “Consider the Lobster,” by David Foster Wallace ● “Jeff in Venice, Death in Varanasi,” by Geoff Dyer ● “A Little Devil in America,” by Hanif Abdurraqib ● “Luster,” by Raven Leilani ● “The Possessed,” by Elif Batuman ● “Random Family,” by Adrian Nicole LeBlanc ● “The Rest Is Noise,” by Alex Ross ● “Runaway,” by Alice Munro ● “Sound Within Sound,” by Kate Molleson

Morgan Jerkins

Morgan jerkins is a journalist, editor and the author of several books, including this will be my undoing ..

book cover for Barracoon by Zora Neale Hurston

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  1. 15+ Thesis Outline Templates

    how to write a fiction essay thesis and outline

  2. 15+ Thesis Outline Templates

    how to write a fiction essay thesis and outline

  3. 18 Thesis Outline Templates and Examples (Word

    how to write a fiction essay thesis and outline

  4. Thesis Outline Template

    how to write a fiction essay thesis and outline

  5. 18 Thesis Outline Templates and Examples (Word

    how to write a fiction essay thesis and outline

  6. 15+ Thesis Outline Templates

    how to write a fiction essay thesis and outline


  1. Problem-Solution Essays

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  5. Best Non-fiction Essay in English Literature

  6. How to Create an Outline for a Research Paper or Thesis (7 Steps) 📖


  1. How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay

    Table of contents. Step 1: Reading the text and identifying literary devices. Step 2: Coming up with a thesis. Step 3: Writing a title and introduction. Step 4: Writing the body of the essay. Step 5: Writing a conclusion. Other interesting articles.

  2. PDF Outline Structure for Literary Analysis Essay

    3. Body: The body of your paper should logically and fully develop and support your thesis. a. Each body paragraph should focus on one main idea that supports your thesis statement. b. These paragraphs include: i. A topic sentence - a topic sentence states the main point of a paragraph: it serves as a mini-thesis for the paragraph.

  3. How to Write an Essay Outline

    An essay outline is a way of planning the structure of your essay before you start writing. It involves writing quick summary sentences or phrases for every point you will cover in each paragraph, giving you a picture of how your argument will unfold. You'll sometimes be asked to submit an essay outline as a separate assignment before you ...

  4. Developing a Thesis

    This thesis focuses on the idea of social corruption and the device of imagery. To support this thesis, you would need to find images of beasts and cannibalism within the text. This handout covers major topics relating to writing about fiction. This covers prewriting, close reading, thesis development, drafting, and common pitfalls to avoid.

  5. Writing About Short Fiction

    Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together. Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper. Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study.

  6. How To Write A Literary Analysis Essay Outline With Examples

    Paragraph 1: Introduction to the literary work and its context. Paragraph 2: Analysis of the work's major themes and motifs. Paragraph 3: Examination of the author's writing style and literary techniques. Paragraph 4: In-depth analysis of specific literary devices used in the work.


    1. Your essay must cover the topic you are writing about. 2. Your essay must have a central idea (stated in your thesis) that governs its development. 3. Your essay must be organized so that every part contributes something to the reader's understanding of the central idea. THE ELEMENTS OF A SOLID ESSAY The Thesis Statement

  8. How to Write an Essay Outline in 4 Steps

    3 Identify the points you'll make in each paragraph. Using the list of points you wrote down, identify the key arguments you'll make in your essay. These will be your body sections. For example, in an argumentative essay about why your campus needs to install more water fountains, you might make points like:

  9. 8.2: Outlining for Literary Essays

    Outlining Basics. The purpose of an outline is twofold: first, to help you organize your ideas. Second, to help readers follow along with your ideas. Think of an outline as a map for your essay. An essay without some kind of structure often flounders because readers get lost. The following are basic principles of essay organization that should ...

  10. How to Write an Essay Outline

    Step 4: Add Depth with Subpoints. To add depth and clarity to your essay, incorporate subpoints under each main point. These subpoints provide more specific details, evidence, or examples that support your main ideas. They help to further strengthen your arguments and make your essay more convincing.

  11. How to Write an Essay Outline: 5 Examples & Free Template

    Start off by creating a broad thesis statement or central idea. Then move on to providing examples or pieces of information that support this statement or elaborate on it. This method also provides a comprehensive overview of your essay and helps identify any missing bits of information. 2. Generates greater impact.

  12. Fiction Essay Thesis and Outline Instructions

    Crafting a fiction essay thesis and outline is a challenging task that requires balancing creativity with academic rigor. Students must tell a compelling narrative while also adhering to scholarly expectations, such as incorporating a clear thesis statement and well-organized outline. One of the key challenges is striking a balance between creative expression and academic formality. Seeking ...

  13. 3. Thesis Statement & Outline

    An outline is the skeleton of your essay, in which you list the arguments and subtopics in a logical order. A good outline is an important element in writing a good paper. An outline helps to target your research areas, keep you within the scope without going off-track, and it can also help to keep your argument in good order when writing the ...

  14. How to Write Literary Fiction in 6 Steps

    To make the most of writing in this fun genre, we've assembled 6 simple steps you can follow. 1. Start with a topic you wish to explore. The first step is simple: all you need is to identify a theme or topic that interests you. At this stage, your "topic" can be universal or very specific. There's no need to transpose this topic into a ...

  15. How to Write the AP Lit Prose Essay + Example

    Here are Nine Must-have Tips and Tricks to Get a Good Score on the Prose Essay: Carefully read, review, and underline key instructions in the prompt.; Briefly outline what you want to cover in your essay.; Be sure to have a clear thesis that includes the terms mentioned in the instructions, literary devices, tone, and meaning.; Include the author's name and title in your introduction.

  16. Fiction Essay Thesis and Outline Draft Assignment

    FICTION ESSAY: THESIS AND OUTLINE DRAFT ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS OVERVIEW. For each essay, you will have the opportunity to submit a 1-page optional Thesis and Outline for instructor feedback. This step in the writing process will help you cogent thesis statement, organize your essay, and receive instructor feedback to ensure that you are onto map out your ideas, formulate a the right track.

  17. 16 Writing Tips for Fiction Writers

    Teaches Mystery and Thriller Writing. Teaches the Art of the Short Story. Teaches Storytelling and Humor. Teaches Writing for Television. Teaches Screenwriting. Teaches Fiction and Storytelling. Teaches Storytelling and Writing. Teaches Creating Outside the Lines. Teaches Writing for Social Change.

  18. Writing about the Novel: Film Comparison

    Step 3: Choose a Film for Comparison. The key to a good comparison essay is to choose two subjects that connect in a meaningful way. The purpose of conducting the comparison is not to state the obvious, but rather to illuminate subtle differences or unexpected similarities. When writing a film comparison paper, the point is to make an argument ...

  19. thesis examples

    Note that the work, author, and character to be analyzed are identified in this thesis statement. The thesis relies on a strong verb (creates). It also identifies the element of fiction that the writer will explore (character) and the characteristics the writer will analyze and discuss (determination, faith, cunning). Further Examples:

  20. Thesis Outline

    Thesis outline typically follows a standard format and includes the following sections: Title page: This page includes the thesis title, author's name, department, university, and the date of submission. Abstract: This section is a brief summary of the thesis, highlighting the main points and conclusions. It usually contains around 150-300 words.

  21. Thesis Outline: Template, Format, Writing Guide

    A thesis outline is an organizational tool that writers use in their academic and professional thesis papers. Like a blueprint for your essay, it forms the foundation of the entire writing process. It is used to structure the main ideas into a list of easy and quick to follow contents.

  22. Dissertation & Thesis Outline

    Dissertation & Thesis Outline | Example & Free Templates. Published on June 7, 2022 by Tegan George.Revised on November 21, 2023. A thesis or dissertation outline is one of the most critical early steps in your writing process.It helps you to lay out and organize your ideas and can provide you with a roadmap for deciding the specifics of your dissertation topic and showcasing its relevance to ...

  23. Full Guide to Writing an Analytical Essay

    How to write an analytical essay. Writing an analytical essay requires a structured approach to maintain its logic and analytical essay format. Let's start with understanding how to start an analysis essay. Step 1. Preparation and research. Before starting to write an analytical essay, it is essential to research its topic.

  24. To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Topics and Rubric2 (4)

    To Kill a Mockingbird Thematic Literary Essay Topics Follow the requirements below: Length is approximately 750-1000 words (3-4 pages) MUST include at least six well-chosen quotes - two per paragraph (from throughout the novel). Essays are to be typed, double spaced, 12 pt. font, Times New Roman Must follow MLA format. Your essay brainstorming and outline must be handed in along with your ...

  25. Rhetorical Analysis: A Comprehensive Guide

    Step 5. Finish your essay. Restate your thesis in different words and give a quick recap of all the evidence you provided. After you are finished, reread your essay and make necessary corrections if needed. Summary: rhetorical analysis essay. Rhetorical essays are some of the most difficult academic essays for writing.

  26. Writing a Compare and Contrast Essay: A Complete Guide

    Compare and contrast essay outline. The comparative essay outline is not much different than other academic essays in terms of the outline. The compare and contrast essay outline includes: Introduction, which contains a compare and contrast thesis statement; Body of the essay, which presents the comparisons of two or more subjects of an essay;

  27. of the 21st Century

    Stephen King, Min Jin Lee, Karl Ove Knausgaard, Bonnie Garmus, Nana Kwame Adjei‑Brenyah, Junot Díaz, Sarah Jessica Parker, James Patterson, Elin Hilderbrand ...