## Problem-Solving Agents In Artificial Intelligence

In artificial intelligence, a problem-solving agent refers to a type of intelligent agent designed to address and solve complex problems or tasks in its environment. These agents are a fundamental concept in AI and are used in various applications, from game-playing algorithms to robotics and decision-making systems. Here are some key characteristics and components of a problem-solving agent:

- Perception : Problem-solving agents typically have the ability to perceive or sense their environment. They can gather information about the current state of the world, often through sensors, cameras, or other data sources.
- Knowledge Base : These agents often possess some form of knowledge or representation of the problem domain. This knowledge can be encoded in various ways, such as rules, facts, or models, depending on the specific problem.
- Reasoning : Problem-solving agents employ reasoning mechanisms to make decisions and select actions based on their perception and knowledge. This involves processing information, making inferences, and selecting the best course of action.
- Planning : For many complex problems, problem-solving agents engage in planning. They consider different sequences of actions to achieve their goals and decide on the most suitable action plan.
- Actuation : After determining the best course of action, problem-solving agents take actions to interact with their environment. This can involve physical actions in the case of robotics or making decisions in more abstract problem-solving domains.
- Feedback : Problem-solving agents often receive feedback from their environment, which they use to adjust their actions and refine their problem-solving strategies. This feedback loop helps them adapt to changing conditions and improve their performance.
- Learning : Some problem-solving agents incorporate machine learning techniques to improve their performance over time. They can learn from experience, adapt their strategies, and become more efficient at solving similar problems in the future.

Problem-solving agents can vary greatly in complexity, from simple algorithms that solve straightforward puzzles to highly sophisticated AI systems that tackle complex, real-world problems. The design and implementation of problem-solving agents depend on the specific problem domain and the goals of the AI application.

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## Problem Solving Agents in Artificial Intelligence

In this post, we will talk about Problem Solving agents in Artificial Intelligence, which are sort of goal-based agents. Because the straight mapping from states to actions of a basic reflex agent is too vast to retain for a complex environment, we utilize goal-based agents that may consider future actions and the desirability of outcomes.

You Will Learn

## Problem Solving Agents

Problem Solving Agents decide what to do by finding a sequence of actions that leads to a desirable state or solution.

An agent may need to plan when the best course of action is not immediately visible. They may need to think through a series of moves that will lead them to their goal state. Such an agent is known as a problem solving agent , and the computation it does is known as a search .

The problem solving agent follows this four phase problem solving process:

- Goal Formulation: This is the first and most basic phase in problem solving. It arranges specific steps to establish a target/goal that demands some activity to reach it. AI agents are now used to formulate goals.
- Problem Formulation: It is one of the fundamental steps in problem-solving that determines what action should be taken to reach the goal.
- Search: After the Goal and Problem Formulation, the agent simulates sequences of actions and has to look for a sequence of actions that reaches the goal. This process is called search, and the sequence is called a solution . The agent might have to simulate multiple sequences that do not reach the goal, but eventually, it will find a solution, or it will find that no solution is possible. A search algorithm takes a problem as input and outputs a sequence of actions.
- Execution: After the search phase, the agent can now execute the actions that are recommended by the search algorithm, one at a time. This final stage is known as the execution phase.

## Problems and Solution

Before we move into the problem formulation phase, we must first define a problem in terms of problem solving agents.

A formal definition of a problem consists of five components:

## Initial State

Transition model.

It is the agent’s starting state or initial step towards its goal. For example, if a taxi agent needs to travel to a location(B), but the taxi is already at location(A), the problem’s initial state would be the location (A).

It is a description of the possible actions that the agent can take. Given a state s, Actions ( s ) returns the actions that can be executed in s. Each of these actions is said to be appropriate in s.

It describes what each action does. It is specified by a function Result ( s, a ) that returns the state that results from doing action an in state s.

The initial state, actions, and transition model together define the state space of a problem, a set of all states reachable from the initial state by any sequence of actions. The state space forms a graph in which the nodes are states, and the links between the nodes are actions.

It determines if the given state is a goal state. Sometimes there is an explicit list of potential goal states, and the test merely verifies whether the provided state is one of them. The goal is sometimes expressed via an abstract attribute rather than an explicitly enumerated set of conditions.

It assigns a numerical cost to each path that leads to the goal. The problem solving agents choose a cost function that matches its performance measure. Remember that the optimal solution has the lowest path cost of all the solutions .

## Example Problems

The problem solving approach has been used in a wide range of work contexts. There are two kinds of problem approaches

- Standardized/ Toy Problem: Its purpose is to demonstrate or practice various problem solving techniques. It can be described concisely and precisely, making it appropriate as a benchmark for academics to compare the performance of algorithms.
- Real-world Problems: It is real-world problems that need solutions. It does not rely on descriptions, unlike a toy problem, yet we can have a basic description of the issue.

## Some Standardized/Toy Problems

Vacuum world problem.

Let us take a vacuum cleaner agent and it can move left or right and its jump is to suck up the dirt from the floor.

The vacuum world’s problem can be stated as follows:

States: A world state specifies which objects are housed in which cells. The objects in the vacuum world are the agent and any dirt. The agent can be in either of the two cells in the simple two-cell version, and each call can include dirt or not, therefore there are 2×2×2 = 8 states. A vacuum environment with n cells has n×2 n states in general.

Initial State: Any state can be specified as the starting point.

Actions: We defined three actions in the two-cell world: sucking, moving left, and moving right. More movement activities are required in a two-dimensional multi-cell world.

Transition Model: Suck cleans the agent’s cell of any filth; Forward moves the agent one cell forward in the direction it is facing unless it meets a wall, in which case the action has no effect. Backward moves the agent in the opposite direction, whilst TurnRight and TurnLeft rotate it by 90°.

Goal States: The states in which every cell is clean.

Action Cost: Each action costs 1.

## 8 Puzzle Problem

In a sliding-tile puzzle , a number of tiles (sometimes called blocks or pieces) are arranged in a grid with one or more blank spaces so that some of the tiles can slide into the blank space. One variant is the Rush Hour puzzle, in which cars and trucks slide around a 6 x 6 grid in an attempt to free a car from the traffic jam. Perhaps the best-known variant is the 8- puzzle (see Figure below ), which consists of a 3 x 3 grid with eight numbered tiles and one blank space, and the 15-puzzle on a 4 x 4 grid. The object is to reach a specified goal state, such as the one shown on the right of the figure. The standard formulation of the 8 puzzles is as follows:

STATES : A state description specifies the location of each of the tiles.

INITIAL STATE : Any state can be designated as the initial state. (Note that a parity property partitions the state space—any given goal can be reached from exactly half of the possible initial states.)

ACTIONS : While in the physical world it is a tile that slides, the simplest way of describing action is to think of the blank space moving Left , Right , Up , or Down . If the blank is at an edge or corner then not all actions will be applicable.

TRANSITION MODEL : Maps a state and action to a resulting state; for example, if we apply Left to the start state in the Figure below, the resulting state has the 5 and the blank switched.

GOAL STATE : It identifies whether we have reached the correct goal state. Although any state could be the goal, we typically specify a state with the numbers in order, as in the Figure above.

ACTION COST : Each action costs 1.

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## Chapter 3 Solving Problems by Searching

When the correct action to take is not immediately obvious, an agent may need to plan ahead : to consider a sequence of actions that form a path to a goal state. Such an agent is called a problem-solving agent , and the computational process it undertakes is called search .

Problem-solving agents use atomic representations, that is, states of the world are considered as wholes, with no internal structure visible to the problem-solving algorithms. Agents that use factored or structured representations of states are called planning agents .

We distinguish between informed algorithms, in which the agent can estimate how far it is from the goal, and uninformed algorithms, where no such estimate is available.

## 3.1 Problem-Solving Agents

If the agent has no additional information—that is, if the environment is unknown —then the agent can do no better than to execute one of the actions at random. For now, we assume that our agents always have access to information about the world. With that information, the agent can follow this four-phase problem-solving process:

GOAL FORMULATION : Goals organize behavior by limiting the objectives and hence the actions to be considered.

PROBLEM FORMULATION : The agent devises a description of the states and actions necessary to reach the goal—an abstract model of the relevant part of the world.

SEARCH : Before taking any action in the real world, the agent simulates sequences of actions in its model, searching until it finds a sequence of actions that reaches the goal. Such a sequence is called a solution .

EXECUTION : The agent can now execute the actions in the solution, one at a time.

It is an important property that in a fully observable, deterministic, known environment, the solution to any problem is a fixed sequence of actions . The open-loop system means that ignoring the percepts breaks the loop between agent and environment. If there is a chance that the model is incorrect, or the environment is nondeterministic, then the agent would be safer using a closed-loop approach that monitors the percepts.

In partially observable or nondeterministic environments, a solution would be a branching strategy that recommends different future actions depending on what percepts arrive.

## 3.1.1 Search problems and solutions

A search problem can be defined formally as follows:

A set of possible states that the environment can be in. We call this the state space .

The initial state that the agent starts in.

A set of one or more goal states . We can account for all three of these possibilities by specifying an \(Is\-Goal\) method for a problem.

The actions available to the agent. Given a state \(s\) , \(Actions(s)\) returns a finite set of actions that can be executed in \(s\) . We say that each of these actions is applicable in \(s\) .

A transition model , which describes what each action does. \(Result(s,a)\) returns the state that results from doing action \(a\) in state \(s\) .

An action cost function , denote by \(Action\-Cost(s,a,s\pr)\) when we are programming or \(c(s,a,s\pr)\) when we are doing math, that gives the numeric cost of applying action \(a\) in state \(s\) to reach state \(s\pr\) .

A sequence of actions forms a path , and a solution is a path from the initial state to a goal state. We assume that action costs are additive; that is, the total cost of a path is the sum of the individual action costs. An optimal solution has the lowest path cost among all solutions.

The state space can be represented as a graph in which the vertices are states and the directed edges between them are actions.

## 3.1.2 Formulating problems

The process of removing detail from a representation is called abstraction . The abstraction is valid if we can elaborate any abstract solution into a solution in the more detailed world. The abstraction is useful if carrying out each of the actions in the solution is easier than the original problem.

## 3.2 Example Problems

A standardized problem is intended to illustrate or exercise various problem-solving methods. It can be given a concise, exact description and hence is suitable as a benchmark for researchers to compare the performance of algorithms. A real-world problem , such as robot navigation, is one whose solutions people actually use, and whose formulation is idiosyncratic, not standardized, because, for example, each robot has different sensors that produce different data.

## 3.2.1 Standardized problems

A grid world problem is a two-dimensional rectangular array of square cells in which agents can move from cell to cell.

Vacuum world

Sokoban puzzle

Sliding-tile puzzle

## 3.2.2 Real-world problems

Route-finding problem

Touring problems

Trveling salesperson problem (TSP)

VLSI layout problem

Robot navigation

Automatic assembly sequencing

## 3.3 Search Algorithms

A search algorithm takes a search problem as input and returns a solution, or an indication of failure. We consider algorithms that superimpose a search tree over the state-space graph, forming various paths from the initial state, trying to find a path that reaches a goal state. Each node in the search tree corresponds to a state in the state space and the edges in the search tree correspond to actions. The root of the tree corresponds to the initial state of the problem.

The state space describes the (possibly infinite) set of states in the world, and the actions that allow transitions from one state to another. The search tree describes paths between these states, reaching towards the goal. The search tree may have multiple paths to (and thus multiple nodes for) any given state, but each node in the tree has a unique path back to the root (as in all trees).

The frontier separates two regions of the state-space graph: an interior region where every state has been expanded, and an exterior region of states that have not yet been reached.

## 3.3.1 Best-first search

In best-first search we choose a node, \(n\) , with minimum value of some evaluation function , \(f(n)\) .

## 3.3.2 Search data structures

A node in the tree is represented by a data structure with four components

\(node.State\) : the state to which the node corresponds;

\(node.Parent\) : the node in the tree that generated this node;

\(node.Action\) : the action that was applied to the parent’s state to generate this node;

\(node.Path\-Cost\) : the total cost of the path from the initial state to this node. In mathematical formulas, we use \(g(node)\) as a synonym for \(Path\-Cost\) .

Following the \(PARENT\) pointers back from a node allows us to recover the states and actions along the path to that node. Doing this from a goal node gives us the solution.

We need a data structure to store the frontier . The appropriate choice is a queue of some kind, because the operations on a frontier are:

\(Is\-Empty(frontier)\) returns true only if there are no nodes in the frontier.

\(Pop(frontier)\) removes the top node from the frontier and returns it.

\(Top(frontier)\) returns (but does not remove) the top node of the frontier.

\(Add(node, frontier)\) inserts node into its proper place in the queue.

Three kinds of queues are used in search algorithms:

A priority queue first pops the node with the minimum cost according to some evaluation function, \(f\) . It is used in best-first search.

A FIFO queue or first-in-first-out queue first pops the node that was added to the queue first; we shall see it is used in breadth-first search.

A LIFO queue or last-in-first-out queue (also known as a stack ) pops first the most recently added node; we shall see it is used in depth-first search.

## 3.3.3 Redundant paths

A cycle is a special case of a redundant path .

As the saying goes, algorithms that cannot remember the past are doomed to repeat it . There are three approaches to this issue.

First, we can remember all previously reached states (as best-first search does), allowing us to detect all redundant paths, and keep only the best path to each state.

Second, we can not worry about repeating the past. We call a search algorithm a graph search if it checks for redundant paths and a tree-like search if it does not check.

Third, we can compromise and check for cycles, but not for redundant paths in general.

## 3.3.4 Measuring problem-solving performance

COMPLETENESS : Is the algorithm guaranteed to find a solution when there is one, and to correctly report failure when there is not?

COST OPTIMALITY : Does it find a solution with the lowest path cost of all solutions?

TIME COMPLEXITY : How long does it take to find a solution?

SPACE COMPLEXITY : How much memory is needed to perform the search?

To be complete, a search algorithm must be systematic in the way it explores an infinite state space, making sure it can eventually reach any state that is connected to the initial state.

In theoretical computer science, the typical measure of time and space complexity is the size of the state-space graph, \(|V|+|E|\) , where \(|V|\) is the number of vertices (state nodes) of the graph and \(|E|\) is the number of edges (distinct state/action pairs). For an implicit state space, complexity can be measured in terms of \(d\) , the depth or number of actions in an optimal solution; \(m\) , the maximum number of actions in any path; and \(b\) , the branching factor or number of successors of a node that need to be considered.

## 3.4 Uninformed Search Strategies

3.4.1 breadth-first search .

When all actions have the same cost, an appropriate strategy is breadth-first search , in which the root node is expanded first, then all the successors of the root node are expanded next, then their successors, and so on.

Breadth-first search always finds a solution with a minimal number of actions, because when it is generating nodes at depth \(d\) , it has already generated all the nodes at depth \(d-1\) , so if one of them were a solution, it would have been found.

All the nodes remain in memory, so both time and space complexity are \(O(b^d)\) . The memory requirements are a bigger problem for breadth-first search than the execution time . In general, exponential-complexity search problems cannot be solved by uninformed search for any but the smallest instances .

## 3.4.2 Dijkstra’s algorithm or uniform-cost search

When actions have different costs, an obvious choice is to use best-first search where the evaluation function is the cost of the path from the root to the current node. This is called Dijkstra’s algorithm by the theoretical computer science community, and uniform-cost search by the AI community.

The complexity of uniform-cost search is characterized in terms of \(C^*\) , the cost of the optimal solution, and \(\epsilon\) , a lower bound on the cost of each action, with \(\epsilon>0\) . Then the algorithm’s worst-case time and space complexity is \(O(b^{1+\lfloor C^*/\epsilon\rfloor})\) , which can be much greater than \(b^d\) .

When all action costs are equal, \(b^{1+\lfloor C^*/\epsilon\rfloor}\) is just \(b^{d+1}\) , and uniform-cost search is similar to breadth-first search.

## 3.4.3 Depth-first search and the problem of memory

Depth-first search always expands the deepest node in the frontier first. It could be implemented as a call to \(Best\-First\-Search\) where the evaluation function \(f\) is the negative of the depth.

For problems where a tree-like search is feasible, depth-first search has much smaller needs for memory. A depth-first tree-like search takes time proportional to the number of states, and has memory complexity of only \(O(bm)\) , where \(b\) is the branching factor and \(m\) is the maximum depth of the tree.

A variant of depth-first search called backtracking search uses even less memory.

## 3.4.4 Depth-limited and iterative deepening search

To keep depth-first search from wandering down an infinite path, we can use depth-limited search , a version of depth-first search in which we supply a depth limit, \(l\) , and treat all nodes at depth \(l\) as if they had no successors. The time complexity is \(O(b^l)\) and the space complexity is \(O(bl)\)

Iterative deepening search solves the problem of picking a good value for \(l\) by trying all values: first 0, then 1, then 2, and so on—until either a solution is found, or the depth- limited search returns the failure value rather than the cutoff value.

Its memory requirements are modest: \(O(bd)\) when there is a solution, or \(O(bm)\) on finite state spaces with no solution. The time complexity is \(O(bd)\) when there is a solution, or \(O(bm)\) when there is none.

In general, iterative deepening is the preferred uninformed search method when the search state space is larger than can fit in memory and the depth of the solution is not known .

## 3.4.5 Bidirectional search

An alternative approach called bidirectional search simultaneously searches forward from the initial state and backwards from the goal state(s), hoping that the two searches will meet.

## 3.4.6 Comparing uninformed search algorithms

## 3.5 Informed (Heuristic) Search Strategies

An informed search strategy uses domain–specific hints about the location of goals to find colutions more efficiently than an uninformed strategy. The hints come in the form of a heuristic function , denoted \(h(n)\) :

\(h(n)\) = estimated cost of the cheapest path from the state at node \(n\) to a goal state.

## 3.5.1 Greedy best-first search

Greedy best-first search is a form of best-first search that expands first the node with the lowest \(h(n)\) value—the node that appears to be closest to the goal—on the grounds that this is likely to lead to a solution quickly. So the evaluation function \(f(n)=h(n)\) .

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## Examples of Problem Solving Agents in Artificial Intelligence

In the field of artificial intelligence, problem-solving agents play a vital role in finding solutions to complex tasks and challenges. These agents are designed to mimic human intelligence and utilize a range of algorithms and techniques to tackle various problems. By analyzing data, making predictions, and finding optimal solutions, problem-solving agents demonstrate the power and potential of artificial intelligence.

One example of a problem-solving agent in artificial intelligence is a chess-playing program. These agents are capable of evaluating millions of possible moves and predicting the best one to make based on a wide array of factors. By utilizing advanced algorithms and machine learning techniques, these agents can analyze the current state of the game, anticipate future moves, and make strategic decisions to outplay even the most skilled human opponents.

Another example of problem-solving agents in artificial intelligence is autonomous driving systems. These agents are designed to navigate complex road networks, make split-second decisions, and ensure the safety of both passengers and pedestrians. By continuously analyzing sensor data, identifying obstacles, and calculating optimal paths, these agents can effectively solve problems related to navigation, traffic congestion, and collision avoidance.

## Definition and Importance of Problem Solving Agents

A problem solving agent is a type of artificial intelligence agent that is designed to identify and solve problems. These agents are programmed to analyze information, develop potential solutions, and select the best course of action to solve a given problem.

Problem solving agents are an essential aspect of artificial intelligence, as they have the ability to tackle complex problems that humans may find difficult or time-consuming to solve. These agents can handle large amounts of data and perform calculations and analysis at a much faster rate than humans.

Problem solving agents can be found in various domains, including healthcare, finance, manufacturing, and transportation. For example, in healthcare, problem solving agents can analyze patient data and medical records to diagnose diseases and recommend treatment plans. In finance, these agents can analyze market trends and make investment decisions.

The importance of problem solving agents in artificial intelligence lies in their ability to automate and streamline processes, improve efficiency, and reduce human error. These agents can also handle repetitive tasks, freeing up human resources for more complex and strategic work.

In addition, problem solving agents can learn and adapt from past experiences, making them even more effective over time. They can continuously analyze and optimize their problem-solving strategies, resulting in better decision-making and outcomes.

In conclusion, problem solving agents are a fundamental component of artificial intelligence. Their ability to analyze information, develop solutions, and make decisions has a significant impact on various industries and fields. Through their automation and optimization capabilities, problem solving agents contribute to improving efficiency, reducing errors, and enhancing decision-making processes.

## Problem Solving Agent Architecture

A problem-solving agent is a central component in the field of artificial intelligence that is designed to tackle complex problems and find solutions. The architecture of a problem-solving agent consists of several key components that work together to achieve intelligent problem-solving.

One of the main components of a problem-solving agent is the knowledge base. This is where the agent stores relevant information and data that it can use to solve problems. The knowledge base can include facts, rules, and heuristics that the agent has acquired through learning or from experts in the domain.

Another important component of a problem-solving agent is the inference engine. This is the part of the agent that is responsible for reasoning and making logical deductions. The inference engine uses the knowledge base to generate possible solutions to a problem by applying various reasoning techniques, such as deduction, induction, and abduction.

Furthermore, a problem-solving agent often includes a search algorithm or strategy. This is used to systematically explore possible solutions and search for the best one. The search algorithm can be guided by various heuristics or constraints to efficiently navigate through the solution space.

In addition to these components, a problem-solving agent may also have a learning component. This allows the agent to improve its problem-solving capabilities over time through experience. The learning component can help the agent adapt its knowledge base, refine its inference engine, or adjust its search strategy based on feedback or new information.

Overall, the architecture of a problem-solving agent is designed to enable intelligent problem-solving by combining knowledge representation, reasoning, search, and learning. By utilizing these components, problem-solving agents can tackle a wide range of problems and find effective solutions in various domains.

Component | Description |
---|---|

Knowledge base | Stores relevant information and data that the agent can use to solve problems. |

Inference engine | Performs reasoning and logical deductions based on the knowledge base to generate possible solutions. |

Search algorithm | Systematically explores possible solutions and searches for the best one. |

Learning component | Allows the agent to improve its problem-solving capabilities through experience and feedback. |

## Uninformed Search Algorithms

In the field of artificial intelligence, problem-solving agents are often designed to navigate a large search space in order to find a solution to a given problem. Uninformed search algorithms, also known as blind search algorithms, are a class of algorithms that do not use any additional information about the problem to guide their search.

## Breadth-First Search (BFS)

Breadth-First Search (BFS) is one of the most basic uninformed search algorithms. It explores all the neighbor nodes at the present depth before moving on to the nodes at the next depth level. BFS is implemented using a queue data structure, where the nodes to be explored are added to the back of the queue and the nodes to be explored next are removed from the front of the queue.

For example, BFS can be used to find the shortest path between two cities on a road map, exploring all possible paths in a breadth-first manner to find the optimal solution.

## Depth-First Search (DFS)

Depth-First Search (DFS) is another uninformed search algorithm that explores the deepest path first before backtracking. It is implemented using a stack data structure, where nodes are added to the top of the stack and the nodes to be explored next are removed from the top of the stack.

DFS can be used in situations where the goal state is likely to be far from the starting state, as it explores the deepest paths first. However, it may get stuck in an infinite loop if there is a cycle in the search space.

For example, DFS can be used to solve a maze, exploring different paths until the goal state (exit of the maze) is reached.

Overall, uninformed search algorithms provide a foundational approach to problem-solving in artificial intelligence. They do not rely on any additional problem-specific knowledge, making them applicable to a wide range of problems. While they may not always find the optimal solution or have high efficiency, they provide a starting point for more sophisticated search algorithms.

## Breadth-First Search

Breadth-First Search is a problem-solving algorithm commonly used in artificial intelligence. It is an uninformed search algorithm that explores all the immediate variations of a problem before moving on to the next level of variations.

Examples of problems that can be solved using Breadth-First Search include finding the shortest path between two points in a graph, solving a sliding puzzle, or searching for a word in a large text document.

## How Breadth-First Search Works

The Breadth-First Search algorithm starts at the initial state of the problem and expands all the immediate successor states. It then explores the successor states of the expanded states, continuing this process until a goal state is reached.

At each step of the algorithm, the breadth-first search maintains a queue of states to explore. The algorithm removes a state from the front of the queue, explores its successor states, and adds them to the back of the queue. This ensures that states are explored in the order they were added to the queue, resulting in a breadth-first exploration of the problem space.

The algorithm also keeps track of the visited states to avoid revisiting them in the future, preventing infinite loops in cases where the problem space contains cycles.

## Benefits and Limitations

Breadth-First Search guarantees that the shortest path to a goal state is found, if such a path exists. It explores all possible paths of increasing lengths until a goal state is reached, ensuring that shorter paths are explored first.

However, the main limitation of Breadth-First Search is its memory requirements. As it explores all immediate successor states, it needs to keep track of a large number of states in memory. This can become impractical for problems with a large state space. Additionally, Breadth-First Search does not take into account the cost or quality of the paths it explores, making it less suitable for problems with complex cost or objective functions.

Pros | Cons |
---|---|

Guarantees finding the shortest path to a goal state | Large memory requirements |

Explores all possible paths of increasing lengths | Does not consider path cost or quality |

## Depth-First Search

Depth-First Search (DFS) is a common algorithm used in the field of artificial intelligence to solve various types of problems. It is a search strategy that explores as far as possible along each branch of a tree-like structure before backtracking.

In the context of problem-solving agents, DFS is often used to traverse graph-based problem spaces in search of a solution. This algorithm starts at an initial state and explores all possible actions from that state until a goal state is found or all possible paths have been exhausted.

One example of using DFS in artificial intelligence is solving mazes. The agent starts at the entrance of the maze and explores one path at a time, prioritizing depth rather than breadth. It keeps track of the visited nodes and backtracks whenever it encounters a dead end, until it reaches the goal state (the exit of the maze).

Another example is solving puzzles, such as the famous Eight Queens Problem. In this problem, the agent needs to place eight queens on a chessboard in such a way that no two queens threaten each other. DFS can be used to explore all possible combinations of queen placements, backtracking whenever a placement is found to be invalid, until a valid solution is found or all possibilities have been exhausted.

DFS has advantages and disadvantages. Its main advantage is its simplicity and low memory usage, as it only needs to store the path from the initial state to the current state. However, it can get stuck in infinite loops if not implemented properly, and it may not always find the optimal solution.

In conclusion, DFS is a useful algorithm for problem-solving agents in artificial intelligence. It can be applied to a wide range of problems and provides a straightforward approach to exploring problem spaces. By understanding its strengths and limitations, developers can effectively utilize DFS to find solutions efficiently.

## Iterative Deepening Depth-First Search

Iterative Deepening Depth-First Search (IDDFS) is a popular search algorithm used in problem solving within the field of artificial intelligence. It is a combination of depth-first search and breadth-first search algorithms and is designed to overcome some of the limitations of traditional depth-first search.

IDDFS operates in a similar way to depth-first search by exploring a problem space depth-wise. However, it does not keep track of the visited nodes in the search tree as depth-first search does. Instead, it uses a depth limit, which is gradually increased with each iteration, to restrict the depth to which it explores the search tree. This allows IDDFS to gradually explore the search space, starting from a shallow depth and progressively moving to deeper depths.

The iterative deepening depth-first search algorithm works by repeatedly performing depth-limited searches, incrementing the depth limit by one with each iteration. It performs a depth-first search to a given depth limit and if the goal state is not found, it increases the depth limit and performs the search again. This iterative process continues until the goal state is found or the entire search space has been explored.

IDDFS combines the advantages of both depth-first search and breadth-first search. It has the completeness of breadth-first search, meaning it is guaranteed to find a solution if one exists in the search space. At the same time, it preserves the memory efficiency of depth-first search by only keeping track of the current path being explored. This makes it an efficient algorithm for solving problems that have large or infinite search spaces.

## Advantages of Iterative Deepening Depth-First Search

1. Completeness: IDDFS is a complete algorithm, meaning it is guaranteed to find a solution if one exists.

2. Memory efficiency: IDDFS only keeps track of the current path being explored, making it memory-efficient compared to breadth-first search which needs to store the entire search tree in memory.

## Disadvantages of Iterative Deepening Depth-First Search

1. Redundant work: IDDFS performs multiple depth-limited searches, which can result in redundant work as nodes may be explored multiple times at different depths.

2. Inefficient for non-uniform branching factors: If the branching factor of the search tree varies greatly across different levels, IDDFS may spend a significant amount of time exploring deep levels with high branching factors, leading to inefficiency.

In conclusion, iterative deepening depth-first search is a powerful algorithm used in problem solving within artificial intelligence. It combines the efficiency of depth-first search with the completeness of breadth-first search, making it a valuable tool for solving problems that involve large or infinite search spaces.

## Informed Search Algorithms

In artificial intelligence, problem-solving agents are designed to find solutions to complex problems by applying search algorithms. One class of search algorithms is known as informed search algorithms, which make use of additional knowledge or heuristics to guide the search process.

These algorithms are particularly useful when the problem space is large and the search process needs to be optimized. By using heuristics, informed search algorithms can prioritize certain paths or nodes that are more likely to lead to a solution.

## Examples of Informed Search Algorithms

- A* algorithm: This is a widely used informed search algorithm that combines the benefits of both breadth-first search and best-first search approaches. It uses a heuristic function to estimate the cost from a given node to the goal state, and selects the path with the lowest estimated cost.
- Greedy Best-First Search: This algorithm uses a heuristic function to prioritize nodes based on their estimated distance to the goal. It always chooses the path that appears to be closest to the goal, without considering the overall cost of the path.
- IDA* algorithm: Short for Iterative Deepening A*, this algorithm is an optimization of the A* algorithm. It performs a depth-first search with an increasing maximum depth limit, guided by a heuristic function. This allows it to find the optimal solution with less memory usage.

These are just a few examples of the many informed search algorithms that exist in the field of artificial intelligence. Each algorithm has its own advantages and is suitable for different types of problems. By applying these algorithms, problem-solving agents can efficiently navigate through complex problem spaces and find optimal solutions.

## Uniform-Cost Search

In the field of artificial intelligence, problem-solving agents are designed to find optimal solutions to given problems. One common approach is the use of search algorithms to explore the problem space and find the best path from an initial state to a goal state. Uniform-cost search is one such algorithm that is widely used in various problem-solving scenarios.

Uniform-cost search works by maintaining a priority queue of states, with the cost of reaching each state as the priority. The algorithm starts with an initial state and repeatedly selects the state with the lowest cost from the queue for expansion. It then generates all possible successors of the selected state and adds them to the queue with their respective costs. This process continues until the goal state is reached or the queue is empty.

To illustrate the use of uniform-cost search, let’s consider an example of finding the shortest path from one city to another on a map. The map can be represented as a graph, with cities as the nodes and roads as the edges. Each road has a cost associated with it, representing the distance between the two cities it connects.

Using uniform-cost search, the algorithm would start from the initial city and explore the neighboring cities, considering the cost of each road. It would then continue expanding the cities with the lowest cumulative costs, gradually moving towards the goal city. The algorithm terminates when it reaches the goal city or exhausts all possible paths.

Uniform-cost search is particularly useful in scenarios where the goal is to find the optimal solution with the lowest cost. It guarantees the discovery of the optimal path by exploring all possible paths in a systematic way. However, it can be computationally expensive in terms of time and memory requirements, especially in large problem spaces.

Advantages | Disadvantages |
---|---|

Guarantees finding optimal solution | Can be computationally expensive |

Systematically explores all possible paths | Requires significant memory usage |

Applicable to a wide range of problem-solving scenarios | Not suitable for problems with infinite state spaces |

In conclusion, uniform-cost search is an effective algorithm used by problem-solving agents in artificial intelligence to find optimal solutions. It systematically explores all possible paths, guaranteeing the discovery of the optimal solution. However, it can be computationally expensive and requires significant memory usage, making it less suitable for problems with large or infinite state spaces.

## Greedy Best-First Search

Greedy Best-First Search (GBFS) is a problem-solving algorithm used in artificial intelligence. It is an example of an intelligent agent that aims to find the most promising solution based solely on its heuristic function.

The GBFS algorithm starts by initializing the initial state of the problem. Then, it evaluates all the neighboring states using a heuristic function, which estimates the cost or value of each state based on certain criteria. The algorithm selects the state that has the lowest heuristic value as the next state to explore.

This means that GBFS always chooses the path that seems most promising at the current moment, without considering the global picture or evaluating future consequences. It follows a greedy approach by making locally optimal decisions. This can sometimes lead to suboptimal solutions if the initial path chosen ends up being a dead-end or if there is a better path further down the line.

GBFS can be used in various problem-solving scenarios. One example is the traveling salesman problem, where the goal is to find the shortest possible route that visits a set of cities and returns to the starting point. The algorithm can evaluate the heuristic value of each potential next city based on its proximity to the current city and select the city with the shortest distance as the next destination.

Another example is the maze-solving problem, where GBFS can be used to navigate through a maze by evaluating the heuristic value of each possible move, such as the distance to the exit or the number of obstacles in the path. The algorithm then chooses the move that leads to the most promising outcome based on the heuristic evaluation.

Overall, GBFS is an example of an intelligent agent in artificial intelligence that utilizes a heuristic function to make locally optimal decisions in problem-solving scenarios. While it may not always guarantee the optimal solution, it can often provide a good approximation and is efficient in many practical applications.

A* search is a widely used algorithm in artificial intelligence for problem-solving. It is an informed search algorithm that combines the features of uniform-cost search with heuristic functions to find an optimal path from a start state to a goal state.

The A* search algorithm is especially useful when dealing with problems that have a large search space or multiple possible paths to the goal state. It uses a heuristic function to estimate the cost of reaching the goal from each state and adds this estimated cost to the actual cost of getting to that state so far. The algorithm then explores the states with the lowest total cost first, making it a best-first search algorithm.

## How A* Search Works

At each step of the A* search algorithm, it selects the state with the lowest total cost from the open set of states to explore next. The total cost is calculated as the sum of the actual cost of reaching the state plus the estimated cost of reaching the goal from that state. The open set is initially populated with the start state, and the algorithm continues until the goal state is reached or the open set is empty.

To estimate the cost of reaching the goal, A* search uses a heuristic function, often denoted as h(n), which provides an optimistic estimate of the cost from a given state to the goal. This heuristic function is problem-specific and can be defined based on various factors, such as distance, time, or other relevant considerations.

One commonly used heuristic function is the Manhattan distance, which calculates the distance between two points in a grid-like environment by summing the absolute differences of their x and y coordinates. Another example is the Euclidean distance, which calculates the straight-line distance between two points in a continuous space.

## Examples of A* Search

A* search has been successfully applied to various problem-solving scenarios. Some examples include:

- Pathfinding in a grid-based environment, such as finding the shortest path in a maze or a game level.
- Optimal route planning for vehicles or delivery services, considering factors like traffic conditions or fuel consumption.
- Puzzle solving, such as finding the minimum number of moves to solve a sliding puzzle or the Tower of Hanoi problem.
- Scheduling and resource allocation, where the objective is to minimize costs or maximize efficiency.

These examples demonstrate the versatility and effectiveness of A* search in solving a wide range of problems in artificial intelligence.

## Constraint Satisfaction Problems

In the field of artificial intelligence, constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) are a type of problem-solving agent that deals with a set of variables and a set of constraints that define the relationships between those variables. The aim is to find an assignment of values to the variables that satisfies all the given constraints.

One example of a CSP is the Sudoku puzzle. In this puzzle, the variables are the empty cells, and the constraints are that each row, column, and 3×3 subgrid must contain distinct numbers from 1 to 9. The problem-solving agent must find a valid assignment of numbers to the variables in order to solve the puzzle.

Another example of a CSP is the map coloring problem. In this problem, the variables are the regions on a map, and the constraints are that adjacent regions cannot have the same color. The problem-solving agent must assign a color to each region in such a way that no adjacent regions have the same color.

CSPs can be solved using various algorithms, such as backtracking, constraint propagation, and local search. These algorithms iteratively explore the search space of possible variable assignments, while taking into account the constraints, in order to find a valid solution.

Overall, constraint satisfaction problems provide a framework for modeling and solving a wide range of problems in artificial intelligence, from puzzles to planning and scheduling problems. By representing the problem as a set of variables and constraints, problem-solving agents can efficiently search for solutions that satisfy all the given constraints.

## Backtracking

Backtracking is a common technique used in solving problems in artificial intelligence. It is particularly useful when exploring all possible solutions to a problem. Backtracking involves a systematic approach to finding a solution by incrementally building a potential solution, and when a dead-end is encountered, it backtracks and tries a different path.

One example of backtracking is the n-queens problem . In this problem, the goal is to place n queens on an n x n chessboard such that no two queens can attack each other. Backtracking can be used to find all possible solutions to this problem by systematically placing queens on the board and checking if the current configuration is valid. If a configuration is not valid, the algorithm backtracks and tries a different position.

Another example of backtracking is the knight’s tour problem . In this problem, the goal is to find a sequence of moves for a knight on a chessboard such that it visits every square exactly once. Backtracking can be used to explore all possible paths the knight can take, and when a dead-end is encountered, it backtracks and tries a different path.

Backtracking algorithms can be time-consuming as they may need to explore a large number of potential solutions. However, they are powerful and flexible, making them suitable for solving a wide range of problems. In artificial intelligence, backtracking is often used in problem-solving agents to find optimal solutions or to explore the space of possible solutions.

## Forward Checking

Forward Checking is a technique used by problem-solving agents in artificial intelligence to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their search algorithms. It is particularly useful when dealing with constraint satisfaction problems, where there are variables that need to be assigned values while satisfying certain constraints.

## How does it work?

When a variable is assigned a value, forward checking updates the remaining domains of the variables by removing any values that are inconsistent with the assigned value, based on the constraints. This helps reduce the search space and allows the agent to explore more promising paths towards a solution.

For example, let’s consider a Sudoku puzzle, which is a classic constraint satisfaction problem. The goal is to fill a 9×9 grid with digits from 1 to 9, such that each row, each column, and each of the nine 3×3 subgrids contains all of the digits from 1 to 9 without repetition.

When forward checking is applied to solve a Sudoku puzzle, the agent starts by assigning a value to an empty cell. Then, it updates the domains of the remaining variables (empty cells) by removing any values that violate the Sudoku constraints. This reduces the number of possible values for the remaining variables and improves the efficiency of the search algorithm.

## Advantages of Forward Checking

Forward checking has several advantages when used by problem-solving agents:

- It helps reduce the search space by eliminating values that are inconsistent with the constraints.
- It can lead to more efficient search algorithms by guiding the agent towards more promising paths.
- It can improve the accuracy of the search algorithm by considering the constraints during the assignment of values.

Overall, forward checking is an important technique used by problem-solving agents to efficiently solve constraint satisfaction problems, such as Sudoku puzzles, and improve the effectiveness of their search algorithms.

## Arc Consistency

Arc consistency is a key concept in artificial intelligence problem-solving agents, specifically in constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). CSPs are mathematical problems that involve finding a solution that satisfies a set of constraints.

In a CSP, variables are assigned values from a domain, and constraints define the relationships between the variables. Arc consistency is a technique used to reduce the search space by ensuring that all values in the domain are consistent with the constraints.

For example, consider a scheduling problem where we need to assign tasks to workers. We have a set of constraints that specify which tasks can be assigned to which workers. Arc consistency would involve checking each constraint to ensure that the assigned values satisfy the constraints. If a constraint is not satisfied, the agent would backtrack and try a different assignment.

The arc consistency technique uses a process called domain filtering, which iteratively eliminates values from the domain that are not consistent with the current assignments and constraints. This process continues until no more values can be removed or until a solution is found.

Variable | Domain | Constraints |
---|---|---|

Task 1 | {Worker A, Worker B} | Task 1 can only be assigned to Worker A |

Task 2 | {Worker B, Worker C} | Task 2 can only be assigned to Worker B or Worker C |

In this example, initially both Task 1 and Task 2 can be assigned to both Worker A and Worker B. However, by applying arc consistency, we can eliminate the assignments that violate the constraints. After applying arc consistency, we end up with the following assignments:

Variable | Domain | Constraints |
---|---|---|

Task 1 | {Worker A} | Task 1 can only be assigned to Worker A |

Task 2 | {Worker B} | Task 2 can only be assigned to Worker B or Worker C |

By applying arc consistency, we have reduced the solution space and ensured that all assignments satisfy the constraints. This allows the problem-solving agent to search for a solution more efficiently.

## Game Playing Agents

Game playing agents are artificial intelligence agents that are designed to play games. These agents are capable of making decisions and taking actions in order to achieve the goal of winning the game. They use various problem solving techniques and strategies to analyze the current state of the game and make the best possible move.

There are several examples of game playing agents in artificial intelligence:

A chess playing agent is a program that can play the game of chess against a human opponent or another computer program. The agent uses algorithms and search techniques to analyze the current position on the chessboard and determine the best move to make. |

A go playing agent is a program that can play the game of go, a strategy board game, against a human opponent or another computer program. The agent uses techniques such as Monte Carlo tree search and pattern recognition to evaluate the current state of the game and make intelligent decisions. |

A poker playing agent is a program that can play the game of poker against human players or other computer programs. These agents use probabilistic reasoning and game theory to make decisions based on the current state of the game and the actions of the opponents. |

A video game playing agent is a program that can play a specific video game, such as a first-person shooter or a platformer. These agents use techniques such as pathfinding, decision trees, and reinforcement learning to navigate the game world and achieve the objectives of the game. |

Game playing agents have been a subject of research and development in artificial intelligence for many years. They have contributed to advancements in areas such as machine learning, pattern recognition, and decision-making algorithms.

## Minimax Algorithm

The Minimax Algorithm is a common solving approach used by intelligent agents in the field of artificial intelligence. It is primarily used in scenarios where an agent needs to make decisions in a competitive setting with an opponent.

The goal of the Minimax Algorithm is to determine the best possible move for an agent, assuming that the opponent is also playing optimally. It works by exploring all potential moves and their resulting outcomes, ultimately selecting the move that minimizes the maximum possible outcome for the opponent.

One example of the Minimax Algorithm in action is in the game of Chess. The agent (player) evaluates the potential moves it can make and computes the possible moves the opponent (opponent player) can make in response. The agent then simulates each possible sequence of moves, looking several moves ahead, and assigns a score to each sequence based on the predicted outcome. The agent selects the move that leads to the sequence with the lowest score, assuming the opponent will always make the move that maximizes their score.

Another example is in the game of Tic Tac Toe. The agent and the opponent each take turns making moves on a 3×3 grid. The agent uses the Minimax Algorithm to explore the possible outcomes of each move and selects the move that minimizes the maximum potential outcome for the opponent.

The Minimax Algorithm is a powerful tool for solving problems in artificial intelligence, as it allows intelligent agents to make optimal decisions in competitive settings. It can be applied to a wide range of scenarios beyond games, including decision-making processes in robotics, resource allocation, and strategic planning.

## Alpha-Beta Pruning

In the field of artificial intelligence, one of the key techniques used by problem-solving agents is called alpha-beta pruning. This technique is employed in game playing algorithms, where the agent needs to make decisions that maximize its chances of winning.

The goal of alpha-beta pruning is to reduce the number of nodes that need to be evaluated in a game tree, without compromising the correctness of the agent’s decision. By pruning branches of the tree that are deemed to be less promising, the agent can save significant computational resources and make faster decisions.

## How Alpha-Beta Pruning Works

Alpha-beta pruning is based on the concept of minimax algorithm, which explores the entire game tree to find the optimal move for the agent. However, unlike minimax, alpha-beta pruning stops exploring certain branches when it is determined that they will not affect the final decision.

The algorithm maintains two values called alpha and beta, which represent the best values achievable for the maximizing player and the minimizing player, respectively. As the agent explores the tree, it updates these values based on the current position and the possible moves.

If the agent finds a move that yields a value greater than or equal to the beta value, it means that the minimizing player can force a value greater than or equal to beta, so there is no need to explore that branch further. Similarly, if the agent finds a move that yields a value less than or equal to the alpha value, it means that the maximizing player can force a value less than or equal to alpha, so there is no need to explore that branch further either.

## Benefits of Alpha-Beta Pruning

Alpha-beta pruning is a powerful technique that can greatly improve the efficiency of problem-solving agents in artificial intelligence. By avoiding the evaluation of unnecessary nodes in the game tree, agents can make faster decisions without sacrificing accuracy.

This technique is particularly useful in games with large branching factors, where the game tree can be extremely large. Alpha-beta pruning allows agents to focus their computational resources on the most promising branches, leading to more effective decision-making and improved gameplay.

## Monte Carlo Tree Search

Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is a popular algorithm used in solving complex problems by artificial intelligence agents. It is particularly effective in problem domains with large state spaces and difficult decision-making processes.

MCTS simulates the problem-solving process by traversing a tree of possible actions and outcomes. It uses random sampling, or “Monte Carlo” simulations, to estimate the potential value or utility of each action. This allows the agent to focus its search on promising actions and avoid wasting time exploring unpromising ones.

The MCTS algorithm consists of four main steps: selection, expansion, simulation, and backpropagation. In the selection step, the algorithm chooses a node from the tree based on a selection policy, typically the Upper Confidence Bound (UCB). The expansion step adds child nodes to the selected node, representing possible actions. The simulation step performs a Monte Carlo simulation by randomly selecting actions and obtaining a simulated outcome. Finally, the backpropagation step updates the values of the nodes in the tree based on the simulation results.

By iteratively performing these steps, MCTS gradually builds up knowledge about the problem domain and improves its decision-making capabilities. It can be used in a wide range of problem-solving scenarios, such as playing board games, optimizing resource allocation, or finding optimal strategies in complex environments.

Overall, Monte Carlo Tree Search is an effective algorithm for solving problems in artificial intelligence. Its ability to balance exploration and exploitation allows agents to efficiently search large state spaces and find optimal solutions to complex problems.

## Expert Systems

Expert systems are a type of problem-solving agents in the field of artificial intelligence. They are designed to mimic the behavior and knowledge of human experts in a specific domain. These systems use a combination of rules, inference engines, and knowledge bases to solve complex problems and provide expert-level solutions.

Expert systems can be found in various industries and domains, including healthcare, finance, manufacturing, and customer support. They are used to assist professionals in making complex decisions, troubleshoot problems, and provide expert advice.

One example of an expert system is IBM Watson, which gained fame for its victory on the television quiz show Jeopardy! Watson is designed to understand natural language, process large amounts of data, and provide accurate answers to questions. It utilizes machine learning techniques to improve its performance over time.

Another example is Dendral, an expert system developed in the 1960s to solve problems in organic chemistry. Dendral was able to analyze mass spectrometry data and identify the structure of organic compounds. It was one of the first successful applications of expert systems in the field of chemistry.

Expert systems can be classified as rule-based systems, where a set of rules is defined to guide the decision-making process. These rules are usually created by domain experts and encoded in the knowledge base of the system. The inference engine then uses these rules to reason and make inferences.

Overall, expert systems play a crucial role in artificial intelligence by combining human expertise and machine learning techniques to solve complex problems in various domains. They provide valuable insights and solutions, making them powerful tools for professionals in different industries.

## Rule-Based Systems

Rule-based systems are a common type of problem-solving agent in artificial intelligence. These systems use a set of rules or “if-then” statements to solve problems. Each rule consists of a condition and an action. If the condition is met, then the action is performed.

## Example 1: Expert Systems

One example of a rule-based system is an expert system. Expert systems are designed to mimic the decision-making abilities of human experts in a specific domain. They use a knowledge base of rules to provide advice or make decisions. For example, a medical expert system could use rules to diagnose a patient’s symptoms and recommend a course of treatment.

## Example 2: Production Systems

Another example of a rule-based system is a production system. Production systems are commonly used in manufacturing and planning domains. They consist of rules that describe the steps to be taken in a production process. For example, a production system for building a car could have rules for assembling different components in a specific order.

In conclusion, rule-based systems are a powerful tool in artificial intelligence for solving problems. They use a set of rules to make decisions or perform actions based on specific conditions. Examples include expert systems and production systems.

## Fuzzy Logic

Fuzzy logic is a branch of artificial intelligence that deals with reasoning that is approximate rather than precise. In contrast to traditional logic, which is based on binary true/false values, fuzzy logic allows for degrees of truth. This makes it particularly useful for problem solving agents in artificial intelligence, as it enables them to work with uncertain or ambiguous information.

One of the key advantages of fuzzy logic is its ability to handle imprecise data and make decisions based on incomplete or uncertain information. This makes it well-suited for applications such as decision-making systems, control systems, and expert systems.

One example of fuzzy logic in action is in weather forecasting. Since weather conditions can be difficult to predict with complete accuracy, fuzzy logic can be used to analyze various factors such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed, and make a determination about the likelihood of rain or sunshine.

Another example is in autonomous vehicles. Fuzzy logic can be used to interpret sensor data, such as distance, speed, and road conditions, and make decisions about how to navigate and respond to the environment. This allows the vehicle to adapt and make intelligent decisions in real-time.

## Bayesian Networks

Bayesian Networks are a powerful tool in the field of Artificial Intelligence, used by problem-solving agents to model uncertain knowledge and make decisions based on probability.

Bayesian Networks are graphical models that represent a set of variables and their probabilistic relationships through a directed acyclic graph. The nodes in the graph represent the variables, while the edges represent the dependencies between the variables.

These networks are widely used in various domains, including healthcare, finance, and robotics, to name a few. They are particularly useful when dealing with uncertain and complex situations, where decisions need to be made based on incomplete or imperfect information.

## Examples of Bayesian Networks:

- Medical Diagnosis: Bayesian Networks can be used to model and diagnose diseases based on symptoms, medical history, and test results. The network can update the probabilities of different diseases based on new evidence and help in making accurate diagnoses.
- Weather Prediction: Bayesian Networks can be used to model the relationships between different weather variables such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed. By updating the probabilities of these variables based on observed data, the network can predict the likelihood of different weather conditions.

In both examples, Bayesian Networks provide a systematic framework for combining prior knowledge with observed evidence to make informed decisions. They enable problem-solving agents to reason under uncertainty and update beliefs in a principled and consistent manner.

## Machine Learning Agents

Machine learning agents are a subset of artificial intelligence agents that utilize machine learning algorithms to solve problems. These agents are capable of learning from experience and improving their performance over time. They are trained on large datasets and use various techniques to analyze and interpret the data, such as deep learning and reinforcement learning.

One example of a machine learning agent is a predictive model that is trained to predict future outcomes based on historical data. For example, in finance, machine learning agents can be used to predict stock prices or identify patterns in market data to make informed investment decisions.

Another example of a machine learning agent is a virtual assistant, such as Siri or Alexa, that uses natural language processing and machine learning techniques to understand and respond to user queries and commands. These virtual assistants continuously learn from user interactions and improve their accuracy in interpreting and responding to user inputs.

Examples of Machine Learning Agents |
---|

Predictive models |

Virtual assistants |

Image recognition systems |

Autonomous vehicles |

Machine learning agents have revolutionized many industries and have the potential to drive innovation and improve efficiency in various domains. By leveraging the power of data and advanced algorithms, these agents can solve complex problems and make intelligent decisions that were previously not possible.

## Reinforcement Learning Agents

Reinforcement learning agents are a type of problem-solving agent in artificial intelligence. These agents are designed to learn and improve their behavior through trial and error, using a system of rewards and punishments.

One example of a reinforcement learning agent is an autonomous robot that learns to navigate its environment. The robot starts with no prior knowledge of the environment and must explore and interact with its surroundings to learn how to reach a specific goal. It receives positive reinforcement, such as a reward, when it successfully performs the desired action, and negative reinforcement, such as a punishment or penalty, when it makes a mistake.

Another example of a reinforcement learning agent is a computer program that learns to play a game. The program is initially unaware of the rules and strategies of the game and must learn through repeated play. It receives positive reinforcement when it makes a winning move or achieves a high score, and negative reinforcement when it makes a losing move or receives a low score. Over time, the program learns to make better decisions and improve its performance.

## Reinforcement Learning Process

The reinforcement learning process consists of the following steps:

- Observation: The agent observes the current state of the environment.
- Action: The agent selects an action to perform based on its current knowledge and strategy.
- Reward: The agent receives a reward or punishment based on the outcome of its action.
- Learning: The agent adjusts its strategy and behavior based on the received reward or punishment.
- Iteration: The process is repeated, with the agent continuously learning and improving over time.

## Applications of Reinforcement Learning Agents

Reinforcement learning agents have various applications in artificial intelligence, including:

- Autonomous robotics
- Game playing
- Optimization problems
- Resource allocation
- Financial trading

These examples demonstrate how reinforcement learning agents can adapt and improve their behavior in different environments and problem-solving scenarios.

## Genetic Algorithms

Genetic Algorithms are a type of problem-solving technique used in artificial intelligence. They are inspired by the process of natural selection and genetic inheritance in living organisms. These algorithms use a population of possible solutions to a problem and apply genetic operators such as selection, crossover, and mutation to evolve and improve the solutions over time.

Genetic Algorithms have been successfully applied to various optimization problems, such as finding the best combination of parameters for a machine learning model or optimizing the routing of vehicles in logistics. They are particularly useful in problems where there is no deterministic algorithm to find an optimal solution.

Here are a few examples of how Genetic Algorithms can be used:

Example | Description |
---|---|

Traveling Salesman Problem | Finding the shortest possible route for a salesman to visit a given set of cities. |

Knapsack Problem | Determining the best combination of items to fit within a limited carrying capacity, maximizing the total value. |

Job Scheduling | Optimizing the allocation of tasks to resources, minimizing the total makespan. |

In each of these examples, Genetic Algorithms can be used to search the solution space more efficiently and find near-optimal or optimal solutions. The population-based approach of Genetic Algorithms allows for exploration of multiple potential solutions simultaneously, increasing the chances of finding a good solution.

Overall, Genetic Algorithms are a powerful and flexible problem-solving technique in the field of artificial intelligence. They can be applied to a wide range of problems and have been proven to be effective in finding optimal or near-optimal solutions.

## Swarm Intelligence

Swarm intelligence is a field of artificial intelligence that involves studying the collective behavior of multi-agent systems in order to solve complex problems. In this approach, individual agents work together as a swarm to find optimal solutions without centralized control or coordination.

Central to the concept of swarm intelligence is the idea that intelligence emerges from the interactions and cooperation of simple agents. These agents, often inspired by natural systems such as ant colonies or bird flocks, follow simple rules and communicate with each other to achieve a common goal.

## Applications

- Swarm intelligence has been used in various problem-solving scenarios, including optimization problems, task allocation, and decision-making.
- One notable application is in robotics, where swarms of robots can collectively explore and map unknown environments, perform search and rescue operations, or even assemble complex structures.
- Another application is in finance, where swarm intelligence algorithms are used to analyze and predict stock market trends or optimize investment portfolios.
- One of the main advantages of swarm intelligence is its robustness and adaptability. As individual agents can communicate and adjust their behavior based on the information from their neighbors, the swarm as a whole can quickly adapt to changes or disturbances in the environment.
- Swarm intelligence also offers a scalable solution, as the performance of the swarm can improve with the addition of more agents.
- Furthermore, swarm intelligence algorithms are often computationally efficient and can handle large-scale problems that would be intractable for traditional optimization techniques.

In conclusion, swarm intelligence is a promising approach in artificial intelligence that leverages the collective intelligence of simple agents to solve complex problems. Its applications span various domains, and its advantages make it an appealing technique for solving real-world challenges.

## Questions and answers

What are problem solving agents in artificial intelligence.

Problem solving agents in artificial intelligence are intelligent systems that are designed to solve complex problems by searching for the best solution based on well-defined rules and goals.

## How do problem solving agents work?

Problem solving agents work by analyzing a given problem, breaking it into smaller sub-problems, and then searching for a solution by applying various problem-solving techniques, such as heuristics, pattern recognition, logical reasoning, and machine learning algorithms.

## Can you give an example of a problem solving agent?

One example of a problem solving agent is a chess-playing computer program. It analyzes the current state of the chessboard, generates possible moves, evaluates their outcomes using a specified evaluation function, and then selects the move with the highest expected outcome as the solution to the problem of finding the best move.

## What are some other applications of problem solving agents?

Problem solving agents have a wide range of applications in various fields. They are used in robotics to plan and execute actions, in automated planning systems to optimize resource allocation, in natural language processing to interpret and respond to user queries, and in medical diagnosis to analyze symptoms and suggest possible treatments.

## Are problem solving agents capable of solving all types of problems?

No, problem solving agents are not capable of solving all types of problems. Their effectiveness depends on the specific problem domain and the availability of knowledge and resources. Some problems may be too complex or ill-defined, making it difficult for problem solving agents to find optimal solutions.

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## What is the problem-solving agent in artificial intelligence?

Are you curious to know how machines can solve complex problems, just like humans? Enter the world of artificial intelligence and meet one of its most critical players- the Problem-Solving Agent. In this blog post, we’ll explore what a problem-solving agent is, how it works in AI systems and some exciting real-world applications that showcase its potential. So, buckle up for an insightful journey into the fascinating world of AI problem solvers!

Problem-solving in artificial intelligence can be quite complex, requiring the use of multiple algorithms and data structures. One critical player is the Problem-Solving Agent, which helps machines find solutions to problems. In this blog post, we’ll explore what a problem-solving agent is, how it works in AI systems and some exciting real-world applications that showcase its potential. So, buckle up for an insightful journey into the fascinating world of AI problem solvers!

Table of Contents

## What is Problem Solving Agent?

Problem-solving in artificial intelligence is the process of finding a solution to a problem. There are many different types of problems that can be solved, and the methods used will depend on the specific problem. The most common type of problem is finding a solution to a maze or navigation puzzle.

Other types of problems include identifying patterns, predicting outcomes, and determining solutions to systems of equations. Each type of problem has its own set of techniques and tools that can be used to solve it.

## There are three main steps in problem-solving in artificial intelligence:

1) understanding the problem: This step involves understanding the specifics of the problem and figuring out what needs to be done to solve it.

2) generating possible solutions: This step involves coming up with as many possible solutions as possible based on information about the problem and what you know about how computers work.

3) choosing a solution: This step involves deciding which solution is best based on what you know about the problem and your options for solving it.

## Types of Problem-Solving Agents

Problem-solving agents are a type of artificial intelligence that helps automate problem-solving. They can be used to solve problems in natural language, algebra, calculus, statistics, and machine learning.

There are three types of problem-solving agents: propositional, predicate, and automata. Propositional problem-solving agents can understand simple statements like “draw a line between A and B” or “find the maximum value of x.” Predicate problem-solving agents can understand more complex statements like “find the shortest path between two points” or “find all pairs of snakes in a jar.” Automata is the simplest form of problem-solving agent and can only understand sequences of symbols like “draw a square.”

## Classification of Problem-Solving Agents

Problem-solving agents can be classified as general problem solvers or domain-specific problem solvers. General problem solvers can solve a wide range of problems, while domain-specific problem solvers are better suited for solving specific types of problems.

General problem solvers include AI programs that are designed to solve general artificial intelligence (AI) problems such as learning how to navigate a 3D environment or playing games. Domain-specific problem solvers include programs that have been specifically tailored to solve certain types of problems, such as photo editing or medical diagnosis.

Both general and domain-specific problem-solving agents can be used in conjunction with other AI tools, including natural language processing (NLP) algorithms and machine learning models. By combining these tools, we can achieve more effective and efficient outcomes in our data analysis and machine learning processes.

## Applications of Problem-Solving Agents

Problem-solving agents can be used in a number of different ways in artificial intelligence. They can be used to help find solutions to specific problems or tasks, or they can be used to generalize a problem and find potential solutions. In either case, the problem-solving agent is able to understand complex instructions and carry out specific tasks.

Problem-solving is an essential skill for any artificial intelligence developer. With AI becoming more prevalent in our lives, it’s important that we have a good understanding of how to approach and solve problems. In this article, we’ll discuss some common problem-solving techniques and provide you with tips on how to apply them when developing AI applications. By applying these techniques systematically, you can build robust AI solutions that work correctly and meet the needs of your users.

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## How does an agent formulate a problem?

In artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, an agent is an entity that perceives its environment, processes information and acts upon that environment to achieve specific goals. The process by which an agent formulates a problem is critical, as it lays the foundation for the agent’s decision-making and problem-solving capabilities.

This article explores the steps and considerations involved in problem formulation by an intelligent agent.

Table of Content

## Understanding Problem Formulation

Example: problem formulation for a package delivery by an autonomous drone, step 1: define the initial state, step 2: define actions and transition model, step 3: define the goal state and objective function, importance of problem formulation, challenges in problem formulation.

Problem formulation is the process by which an agent defines the task it needs to solve. This involves specifying the initial state, goal state, actions, constraints, and the criteria for evaluating solutions. Effective problem formulation is crucial for the success of the agent in finding optimal or satisfactory solutions.

## Steps in Problem Formulation

- Example: In a navigation problem, the initial state could be the agent’s starting location on a map.
- Example: For the navigation problem, the goal state is the destination location.
- Example: In a robot navigation scenario, actions could include moving forward, turning left, or turning right.
- Example: In a game, the transition model would include the rules that specify how the game state changes based on the player’s moves.
- Example: For a delivery drone, constraints might include battery life, weight capacity, and no-fly zones.
- Example: In route planning, the cost function could represent the distance traveled, time taken, or energy consumed.
- Example: For a puzzle-solving agent, success criteria could be the completion of the puzzle within the shortest time or the fewest moves.

We will demonstrate how to formulate the problem of package delivery by an autonomous drone, implementing the concepts in Python code. The drone needs to navigate from an initial location to a customer’s location while avoiding no-fly zones and managing its battery life.

The initial state includes the drone’s starting location and its battery level.

We create a Drone class with an initializer ( __init__ method) that sets the initial location, battery level, no-fly zones, and goal location.

The drone can take various actions such as taking off, landing, and moving in different directions. The transition model updates the drone’s state based on the action taken.

The takeoff , land , and move methods define how the drone’s state changes with each action. The transition_model method uses these actions to update the drone’s state.

The goal state is the customer’s location. The objective function evaluates the drone’s performance based on whether it reaches the goal and the remaining battery life.

The objective_function method returns a high score if the drone reaches the goal and otherwise returns the remaining battery level.

## Complete Implementation

Now let’s put the problem formulation for a package delivery by an autonomous drone into practice:

We instantiate a Drone , execute a sequence of actions, and print the final location, battery level, and objective function score.

Effective problem formulation is essential because:

- Clarity : It provides a clear understanding of the problem, making it easier to devise a solution.
- Efficiency : Proper formulation can significantly reduce the computational resources required to solve the problem.
- Optimal Solutions : It helps in finding the most optimal or satisfactory solution by accurately defining the goals and constraints.
- Incomplete Information : The agent may not have access to all the necessary information about the environment.
- Dynamic Environments : The environment may change unpredictably, requiring the agent to adapt its problem formulation.
- Complex Constraints : Managing and incorporating complex constraints can be challenging.

A key step in artificial intelligence is problem formulation, which has a big influence on how well an agent completes its duties. An agent may efficiently traverse its environment and accomplish desired results by providing precise definitions for the starting state, actions, target state, restrictions, transition model, and objective function. By using a structured approach, the agent is guaranteed to be able to tackle complicated issues methodically and make well-informed judgments that result in effective and efficient solutions. The examples given show how issue formulation is used in a variety of contexts, underscoring its adaptability and significance in the area of artificial intelligence. Problem formulation techniques will continue to be essential to creating intelligent agents that can solve an ever-expanding array of problems as AI develops.

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Search algorithms are one of the most important areas of Artificial Intelligence. This topic will explain all about the search algorithms in AI. In Artificial Intelligence, Search techniques are universal problem-solving methods. or in AI mostly used these search strategies or algorithms to solve a specific problem and provide the best result. Problem-solving agents are the goal-based agents and use atomic representation. In this topic, we will learn various problem-solving search algorithms. Searchingis a step by step procedure to solve a search-problem in a given search space. A search problem can have three main factors: Search space represents a set of possible solutions, which a system may have. It is a state from where agent begins . It is a function which observe the current state and returns whether the goal state is achieved or not. A tree representation of search problem is called Search tree. The root of the search tree is the root node which is corresponding to the initial state. It gives the description of all the available actions to the agent. A description of what each action do, can be represented as a transition model. It is a function which assigns a numeric cost to each path. It is an action sequence which leads from the start node to the goal node. If a solution has the lowest cost among all solutions.Following are the four essential properties of search algorithms to compare the efficiency of these algorithms: A search algorithm is said to be complete if it guarantees to return a solution if at least any solution exists for any random input. If a solution found for an algorithm is guaranteed to be the best solution (lowest path cost) among all other solutions, then such a solution for is said to be an optimal solution. Time complexity is a measure of time for an algorithm to complete its task. It is the maximum storage space required at any point during the search, as the complexity of the problem.
The uninformed search does not contain any domain knowledge such as closeness, the location of the goal. It operates in a brute-force way as it only includes information about how to traverse the tree and how to identify leaf and goal nodes. Uninformed search applies a way in which search tree is searched without any information about the search space like initial state operators and test for the goal, so it is also called blind search.It examines each node of the tree until it achieves the goal node.
Informed search algorithms use domain knowledge. In an informed search, problem information is available which can guide the search. Informed search strategies can find a solution more efficiently than an uninformed search strategy. Informed search is also called a Heuristic search. A heuristic is a way which might not always be guaranteed for best solutions but guaranteed to find a good solution in reasonable time. Informed search can solve much complex problem which could not be solved in another way. An example of informed search algorithms is a traveling salesman problem. |

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## Toward a Solution to Multi-agent Credit Assignment Problem

Multi-agent systems (MAS) try to formulate dynamic world which surround human being in every aspect of his life. One of the important challenges encountered in multiagent systems is the credit assignment problem, simply means distributing the result of ...

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## System Design and Operations of Package Delivery with Crowdshipping and Advanced Air Mobility

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## The Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on Ride-Hailing Platforms with Strategic Human Drivers

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Motivated by the rapid development of autonomous vehicle technology, this work focuses on the challenges of introducing them in ride-hailing platforms with conventional strategic human drivers. We consider a ride-hailing platform that operates a mixed fleet of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and conventional vehicles (CVs), where AVs are fully controlled by the platform and CVs are operated by self-interested human drivers. Each vehicle is modelled as a Markov Decision Process that maximizes long-run average reward by choosing its repositioning actions. The behavior of the CVs corresponds to a large game where agents interact through resource constraints that result in queuing delays. In our fluid model, drivers may wait in queues in the different regions when the supply of drivers tends to exceed the service demand by customers. Our primary objective is to optimize the mixed AV-CV system so that the total profit of the platform generated by AVs and CVs is maximized. To achieve that, we formulate this problem as a bi-level optimization problem OPT where the platform moves first by controlling the actions of the AVs and the demand revealed to CVs, and then the CVs react to the revealed demand by forming an equilibrium that can be characterized by the solution of a convex optimization problem. We prove several interesting structural properties of the optimal solution and analyze simple heuristics such as AV-first where we solve for the optimal dispatch of AVs without taking into account the subsequent reaction of the CVs. We propose three numerical algorithms to solve OPT which is a non-convex problem in the platform decision parameters. We evaluate their performance and use them to show some interesting trends in the optimal AV-CV fleet dimensioning when supply is exogenous and endogenous.

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A search algorithm takes a problem as input and returns a sequence of actions as output. After the search phase, the agent has to carry out the actions that are recommended by the search algorithm ...

May 10, 2024. In artificial intelligence, a problem-solving agent refers to a type of intelligent agent designed to address and solve complex problems or tasks in its environment. These agents are a fundamental concept in AI and are used in various applications, from game-playing algorithms to robotics and decision-making systems.

Problem-solving agents decide what to do by ﬁnding sequences of actions that lead to desir-able states. We start by deﬁning precisely the elements that constitute a "problem" and its "solution," and give several examples to illustrate these deﬁnitions. We then describe sev-eral general-purpose search algorithms that can be used to ...

The problem-solving agent performs precisely by defining problems and several solutions. So we can say that problem solving is a part of artificial intelligence that encompasses a number of techniques such as a tree, B-tree, heuristic algorithms to solve a problem. We can also say that a problem-solving agent is a result-driven agent and always ...

CPE/CSC 580-S06 Artiﬁcial Intelligence - Intelligent Agents the path data type problem components: Initial-State, Operators, Goal-Test, Path-Cost solution path from the initial state to a state that satisﬁes the goal test search algorithm takes the problem data type and computes a solution basis for a formal treatment Franz J. Kurfess ...

Problem formulation ♦ Example problems ♦ Basic search algorithms Chapter 3 2 Problem-solving agents Restricted form of general agent: function Simple-Problem-Solving-Agent (percept) returns an action static: seq, an action sequence, initially empty state, some description of the current world state goal, a goal, initially null problem, a ...

♦Problem-solving agents ♦Problem types ♦Problem formulation ♦Example problems ♦Basic search algorithms Chapter3 2 Problem-solving agents functionSimple-Problem-Solving-Agent(percept) returnsan action static: seq, an action sequence, initially empty state, some description of the current world state goal, a goal, initially null problem ...

The problem solving agent follows this four phase problem solving process: Goal Formulation: This is the first and most basic phase in problem solving. It arranges specific steps to establish a target/goal that demands some activity to reach it. AI agents are now used to formulate goals. Problem Formulation: It is one of the fundamental steps ...

Problem Solving and Search Problem Solving • Agent knows world dynamics • World state is finite, small enough to enumerate • World is deterministic • Utility for a sequence of states is a sum over path The utility for sequences of states is a sum over the path of the utilities of the individual states.

Problem-Solving Agents [2]: Specification Operational Requirements Search algorithm to find path • Objective criterion: minimum cost (this and next 3 lectures) Environment • Agent can search in environment according to specifications • Sometimes has full state and action descriptors; sometimes not!

Chapter 3 Solving Problems by Searching . When the correct action to take is not immediately obvious, an agent may need to plan ahead: to consider a sequence of actions that form a path to a goal state. Such an agent is called a problem-solving agent, and the computational process it undertakes is called search.. Problem-solving agents use atomic representations, that is, states of the world ...

Search - Determine the possible sequence of actions that lead to the states of known values and then choose the best sequence. - Search algorithms - input is a problem, output is a solution (action sequence) Execute - Given the solution, perform the actions. Problem Solving Agent - Special type of goal based agent.

function creates new nodes, parent, action. = 6g = 6lling in the various using the SuccessorFn elds and of the problem to create the correspondi. function Tree-Search( problem, fringe) returns a solution, or failure fringe Insert(Make-Node(Initial-State[problem]), fringe) loop do if fringe is empty then return failure.

Problem-solving agents consider each states of the world as indivisible, with no internal structure of the states visible to the problem-solving algorithms. Planning agents split up each state ...

Uniform-Cost Search. Each arc has some cost c ≥ ε > 0 The cost of the path to each node N is g(N) = Σ costs of arcs The goal is to generate a solution path of minimal cost The nodes N in the queue FRINGE are sorted in. increasing g(N) A S. 0. 1 10. S 5 B 5 G A B C. 1 5 15. 15 C 5.

By applying these algorithms, problem-solving agents can efficiently navigate through complex problem spaces and find optimal solutions. Uniform-Cost Search. In the field of artificial intelligence, problem-solving agents are designed to find optimal solutions to given problems. One common approach is the use of search algorithms to explore the ...

Problem-solving agents are a type of artificial intelligence that helps automate problem-solving. They can be used to solve problems in natural language, algebra, calculus, statistics, and machine learning. There are three types of problem-solving agents: propositional, predicate, and automata. Propositional problem-solving agents can ...

Problem formulation: define a representation for states define legal actions and transition functions. Search: find a solution by means of a search process. solutions are sequences of actions. Execution: given the solution, perform the actions. =) Problem-solving agents are (a kind of) goal-based agents.

Problem solving agents • An agent with several immediate options of unknown value can decide what to do by first examining different possible sequences of actions that lead to states of known value, and then choosing the best sequence • Looking for such a sequence is called search • A search algorithm takes a problem as input and returns a

Prerequisite: Wumpus World in Artificial Intelligence To create a hybrid agent for the wumpus world, the capacity to deduce various aspects of the state of the world may be integrated rather simply with the condition-action rules and problem-solving algorithms. The agent program keeps a knowledge base and a current strategy up to date. The ...

Problem-solving agents use atomic representations, as described in Section 2.4.7—that is, states of the world are considered as wholes, with no internal structure visible to the problem-solving algorithms. Goal-based agents that use more advanced factored or structured rep-resentations are usually called planning agentsand are discussed in ...

S 4700: Foundations of Artifici. eBart SelmanProblem Solving by Search R&N: Chapter 3Search is a central topic in AI.Int. oductionOriginated with Newell and Simon's. work on problem solving; Human Problem Solving (1972).Automated reasoning is a natural search task.More recently: Given that almost all AI formalisms (planning, learning, etc ...

Problem-solving agents: In Artificial Intelligence, Search techniques are universal problem-solving methods. Rational agents or Problem-solving agents in AI mostly used these search strategies or algorithms to solve a specific problem and provide the best result. Problem-solving agents are the goal-based agents and use atomic representation.

RevAP: : A bankruptcy-based algorithm to solve the multi-agent credit assignment problem in task start threshold-based multi-agent systems. Authors: Hossein Yarahmadi, ... In this study aimed at solving the Multi-agent Credit Assignment (MCA) problem, we introduce the Task Start Threshold (TST) of agents as a new constraint in a multi-score ...

To solve this bi-objective problem, a customized solution method which builds on and extends the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is developed. The implementation of the model with the solution method is demonstrated in a case study of package delivery to the north suburbs of the Chicago metro region.

We prove several interesting structural properties of the optimal solution and analyze simple heuristics such as AV-first where we solve for the optimal dispatch of AVs without taking into account the subsequent reaction of the CVs. We propose three numerical algorithms to solve OPT which is a non-convex problem in the platform decision parameters.